Properly Punctuated: Quotation Marks, ‘ and “

Posted January 25, 2016 by Kathy Davie in Author Resources, Editing, Formatting Tips, Properly Punctuated, Self-Editing, Writing

The current American fashion requires that the most frequent punctuation — commas and periods — goes inside the quotation mark (all the rest, usually, goes outside). The previous American fashion and the current British (and all countries and territories associated with England) use a consistent logic which depends upon context to determine whether punctuation is placed inside or outside the closing quotation mark.

Dependent Upon Context

When one uses context to determine the placement of punctuation:

  • If the sentence is a complete quote, then the punctuation goes inside
  • If the quoted text is simply part of a sentence, it goes on the outside unless the quoted text is using ending punctuation such as a question or exclamation mark or a comma which is part of the quote itself
  • Dialogue is something completely different

Quoted material is part of the sentence:

My brother threatened that if I ate any more of his Cheetos, he’d “stuff a whole apple down my throat”.

Dialogue / Verbatim:

Paul said, “If you eat any more of my Cheetos, I’ll stuff a whole apple down your throat!”

Quotation Marks in History

If you’ve read any primary source material, you have probably come across the use of commas as quotation marks. It wasn’t until the early eighteenth century that English printers started using this new mark, and by the last half of that century, the quotation mark — both double and single — were becoming more popular.

Straight Quotes versus Curly Quotes

Once the word processor arrived, the powers that be were able to get even more finicky by insisting that straight double quotes are actually double primes and should be used strictly for measuring notations, i.e., inches, arcseconds, or seconds of time while single quotes are really single primes and used for denoting feet or minutes.

The curly quote is everything else. And also known as, smart quotes, typographer’s quotation marks, curved quotes, typeset quotes, or book quotes. Unfortunately, the Internet freaks out with curly quotes so you must either replace them with straight quotes or use character encoding (and the right font!) to ensure your curlies stay curved. You’ll also have to pay attention to whether you need a right-facing curl or a left-facing one!

Punctuation & Formatting includes…

…the proper use of quotation marks, commas, semicolons, colons, ellipsis, etc., including how to properly mark dialogue, ahem, while the formatting aspect deals with words that should be in quotes or not, what should be spelled out and what can be abbreviated, proper styling for the Latin names of plants, the proper formatting and usage of titles and more in manuscripts I was editing as well as books I was reviewing. It evolved into a sharing of information with y’all.

As neither Properly Punctuated nor Formatting Tips are in no way complete, I would appreciate suggestions and comments from anyone… If you’d like to track it, bookmark this page — and consider sharing this formatting tip on punctuation with friends by tweeting it.

Quotation Marks, ‘ and “
Credit to: Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting
Punctuation & Formatting: ‘ and “
NOTE: I will be referring to quotation marks by their full name as well as referring to them as single or double quotes.
General Rule: Quotation marks are placed inside any ending punctuation. Naturally, there are exceptions. Sort of.

Post Contents:
  • Semicolon
  • Introducing a Quote
  • Never Use Quotation Marks For:
  • A.k.a., speech mark, quote, quote mark, British inverted comma

    Types of Quotes
    Single Quotation Mark

    Rule: In the U.S., single quotation marks are secondary and placed within double quotes (see Single Quotation Marks).

    The British use single quotes as the primary in dialogue with the double quotes used inside singles.

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    Henry asked, “Wasn’t it Niccolo Machiavelli who said that ‘Never was anything great achieved without danger’?”

    BCBT:
    Henry asked, ‘Wasn’t it Niccolo Machiavelli who said that “Never was anything great achieved without danger”?’

    Double Quotation Mark

    Rule: In the U.S., double quotes are always the primary quotation mark; single quotes are secondary and placed within double quotes (see Single Quotation Marks).

    The British do the reverse in dialogue with single quotes as primary and the double quotes used inside singles. An exception is if you are quoting someone using British English, then use double quotes.

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    “Never was anything great achieved without danger.” – Niccolo Machiavelli

    BCBT:
    ‘Never was anything great achieved without danger.’ – Niccolo Machiavelli

    Straight Quotation Mark

    ‘   “

    Rule: Straight quotation marks were the original typewriter-style marks used; you’ll have to use these whenever you intend to upload your manuscript to a website, blog, or as an ebook UNLESS you replace them with an entity name or number (the preferred quote mark), which you can do by manually, by including the CSS code, or using a plug-in.

    The only place you truly should use straight quotes are when coding.

    A.k.a., dumb quote

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    q,

    blockquote{

    quotes: “\201C” “\201D” “\2018” “\2019”;
    }
    Curly Quotation Mark

    ‘_’   “_”

    Rule: Curly quotation marks are typographic marks. You can set Preferences in your word processing program to substitute curly quotes for the standard straight ones.

    Do be aware that if you are writing for the Internet or an ebook, you should NOT use curly quotes, unless you use the character codes, a.k.a., HTML entity. Wikipedia has a great display of quotation mark glyphs.

    Whether your curly quote actually shows as curly will also depend upon the font you’ve chosen. For example, Verdana doesn’t show curly quotes while Helvetica does.

    A.k.a., smart quote, curly quote, curled quote, curling quote, curved quote

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    left single quote ‘ (entity name)
    &8216; (entity number)
    right single quote
    right curly quote
    apostrophe
    ’
    ’
    &8217;
    ʼ
    left double quote “
    &8220;
    right double quote ”
    &8221;
    The Right Curly Quote

    Rule: Use a right curly quote preceding a word or used with an archaic contraction.

    To create the right curly quote:

    • In Word (Windows), use this as a shortcut to achieve a single right curly quote: Ctrl+', '
    • In the Mac version of Word, use Option Shift ]
    • HTML character codes are ’ OR ’

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    ’Tis a consummation devoutly to be wished –Shakespeare, Hamlet

    “I have no spur to prick the sides of my intent, but only vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself, and falls on the other.” – Shakespeare, MacBeth

    “The snowdrop and primrose our woodlands adorn, and violets bathe in the wet o’ the morn.” – Robert Burns

    Quote Marks Used by Other Countries Not all countries use American/British quotation marks. Some have a preference for guillmets, a.k.a., high commas or curly quotes.

    Legend:

    • ‹ Single guillmet
    • « Double guillmet

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    Language Standard Alternative
    Primary Secondary Primary Secondary
    Danish » n « › n ‹ ,, n “
    OR
    “ n ”
    , n ‘
    OR
    ‘ n ’
    Dutch “ n ” ‘ n ’
    French « n » « n »
    OR
    “ n ”
    “ n ” ‘ n ’
    German „ n “ , n ‘ » n « › n ‹
    Italian « n » “ n ” “ n ” ‘ n ’
    Swedish ” n ” ’ n ’ « n «
    OR
    » n »
    ’ n ’
    Prime

    ′   ″

    Definition: Typographic symbols commonly used to indicate feet and inches, minutes and seconds, and typographic points. They are also used in specific areas of expertise such as mathematics, statistics, the sciences, linguistics, and music. They are NOT quotation marks.

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    Prime feet
    minutes
    arcminutes
    typographic point
    ′
    Double Prime inches
    seconds
    arcseconds
    ″
    Prime Triplet
    Prime Triple
    watchmaking ‴
    Prime Quadruplet
    Prime Quadruple
    ?? ⁗
    When to Capitalize the Start of a Quote Rule: A complete quotation should always be capitalized at its start, even if it occurs mid-sentence. Also see the post on “Dialogue“.

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    Bill said, “That job we started last April is done.”
    Always Use Quotation Marks
    Quote Verbatim Definition: Quoting directly from a source.

    Rule: APA: If the quote consists of 40 words or fewer, use a double quotation mark directly before and after the quoted text with the source cited within the ending period. If the quote consists of 40 words or more, use a block quote.

    Long instructions are set apart in a block quote. (APA 34-35).

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    Current Fashion & Old Fashioned:
    “Reproducing material from a test item or verbatim instructions to participants.”

    Current Fashion:
    The first fill-in item was could be expected to ______.

    Old Fashioned & BCBT:
    The first fill-in item was could be expected to ______.

    Titles
    Articles
    Chapters
    Posts
    Rule: Chicago requires titles of articles or chapters be set apart from other text. AP has no requirement.

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    Current Fashion:
    The Week ran an article, The Secrets of Supermassive Black Holes,” in its December 23, 2011 issue.

    Old Fashioned & BCBT:
    The Week ran an article, The Secrets of Supermassive Black Holes, in its December 23, 2011 issue.

    Short Stories
    Poem
    Essay
    TV or Radio Program Episode
    Rule: A good general rule is that if a title is part of a larger composition *, put it in quotes. The short story and essay goes in quotes because full-length books are bigger; poems are usually part of a collection; and a radio or television program is in italics, but the individual episode is in quotes.

    * A composition is a creative, journalistic, or scholarly enterprise that is whole, complex, a thing unto itself. This includes books, movies, plays, TV shows, newspapers, magazines, websites, music albums, operas, musical theater, paintings, sculptures, and other works of art (Grammar Book).

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    ALL:
    “The End of the World” is an episode from Dr. Who.

    One of the episodes on the TED Radio Hour was Deborah Gordon’s “Why Don’t Ants Need A Leader?”

    Current Fashion:
    A Stargate SG-1 episode was “The Road Not Taken.”

    Old Fashioned & BCBT:
    A Stargate SG-1 episode was “The Road Not Taken”.

    Song Title Rule: Song titles are set apart from other text. (Music albums are always italicized.)

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    Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star is one of the first songs beginning instrumentalists learn.

    Current Fashion:
    Francis Scott Key watched the battle take place over Fort Sumter which inspired his writing the The Star Spangled Banner.”

    Old Fashioned & BCBT:
    Francis Scott Key watched the battle take place over Fort Sumter which inspired his writing the The Star Spangled Banner“.

    Be Careful Using Quotation Marks For:
    Ironic Comment,
    Slang,
    Invented or Coined Expression
    Rule: “Introducing a word or phrase used as an ironic comment, slang, or an invented or coined expression, but only the first time the word or phrase is used” (APA 34). One way to determine if it is irony is if you can insert the word so-called. Hedging is completely different.

    Also see the post, “The Silent Comedian, or When Quotes = Sarcasm“.

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    The five-year-old prepared a gourmet breakfast for his mother on Mother’s Day.

    He’s one of the fifty something crowd.

    She said the part was “the bee’s knees”.

    Block Quote Definition: A chunk of text that is set apart from the standard text. Each style guide (and many publishers with their own in-house rules) has specific requirements on how many lines or words are required before a block format is necessary as well as how to format a block quote, although, the basics generally include:

    • No quotation marks
    • Indent the left edge of the block of quoted text
    • Start with a new line
    • Options include:
      • Indent the right margin
      • Reduce the line spacing
      • Use a smaller or otherwise different font

    In some cases, two or more short quotations may be put in block format so that readers can easily compare them ( Einsohn).

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    When a block quote is required within the text, the general suggestions include (and I’m sampling all the options *grin*):

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer adipiscing justo a arcu rutrum et auctor nibh sollicitudin. Nullam facilisis tristique purus, non volutpat purus fermentum sit amet. Vestibulum cursus, nisi eu elementum vehicula, lacus elit pharetra risus, non interdum nunc ipsum nec felis. Nullam id est odio. Proin scelerisque eros vel risus gravida posuere pharetra arcu aliquet. Mauris sit amet tortor massa, imperdiet rutrum sem. In nec sapien urna. Praesent convallis elit quis nisi luctus suscipit. Vivamus at risus a nunc sollicitudin aliquam sed ut augue. Sed nec odio in arcu vestibulum volutpat. Morbi interdum blandit felis, ac blandit ligula porttitor in.

    AP Stylebook Rule: If quoted material runs four or more lines in text, it is better to use a block quotation.

    Appearance:

    1. Indent on both sides from the set margin
    2. Does not require quotation marks
      • If there are internal quotes, change them from single quotes to double quotes
    3. If quoting more than one paragraph and you are NOT using block quotation, put quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph. There are no ending quotation marks until the final paragraph.

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    When a block quote is required within the text, AP rules call for:

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer adipiscing “justo a arcu rutrum et auctor nibh” sollicitudin. “Nullam id est odio. Proin ‘scelerisque eros vel risus gravida’ posuere pharetra arcu aliquet.”

    Mauris sit amet tortor massa, imperdiet rutrum sem. In nec sapien urna. Praesent convallis elit quis nisi luctus suscipit.


    If not using a block quote, AP rules call for:

    “Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer adipiscing ‘justo a arcu rutrum et auctor nibh’ sollicitudin. Nullam facilisis tristique purus, non volutpat purus fermentum sit amet. Vestibulum cursus, nisi eu elementum vehicula, lacus elit pharetra risus, non interdum nunc ipsum nec felis. ‘Nullam id est odio. Proin “scelerisque eros vel risus gravida” posuere pharetra arcu aliquet.’

    “Mauris sit amet tortor massa, imperdiet rutrum sem. In nec sapien urna. Praesent convallis elit quis nisi luctus suscipit. Vivamus at risus a nunc sollicitudin aliquam sed ut augue. Sed nec odio in arcu vestibulum volutpat. Morbi interdum blandit felis, ac blandit ligula porttitor in.”

    APA Rule: Block quotes should be used if it uses 40 words or more.

    Appearance:

    1. Start with a new line
    2. Indent all the text one inch from the left main margin
    3. Use double spacing
    4. Does not need quotation marks
    5. If the quote consists of multiple paragraphs, indent the first line of each succeeding paragraph
    6. If the quote ends with a period, note the source after the period.

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    When a block quote is required within the text, APA rules call for:
    Single Paragraph:

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer adipiscing justo a arcu rutrum et auctor nibh sollicitudin. Nullam facilisis tristique purus, non volutpat purus fermentum sit amet. Vestibulum cursus, nisi eu elementum vehicula, lacus elit pharetra risus, non interdum nunc ipsum nec felis. Nullam id est odio. Proin scelerisque eros vel risus gravida posuere pharetra arcu aliquet. Mauris sit amet tortor massa, imperdiet rutrum sem. In nec sapien urna. (p. 345).


    Multiple Paragraphs:

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer adipiscing justo a arcu rutrum et auctor nibh sollicitudin.

    Nullam facilisis tristique purus, non volutpat purus fermentum sit amet. Vestibulum cursus, nisi eu elementum vehicula, lacus elit pharetra risus, non interdum nunc ipsum nec felis.

    Nullam id est odio. Proin scelerisque eros vel risus gravida posuere pharetra arcu aliquet. Mauris sit amet tortor massa, imperdiet rutrum sem. In nec sapien urna. (p. 345).

    Chicago Rule: In general, create a block quote if the quotation is 100 words or more OR a minimum of 8 lines. Exceptions include:

    • It is visually preferable
    • Set off quoted letters if it includes the signature, salutations, etc.
    • Lists
    • Material that requires special formatting
    • Two or more lines of poetry

    Appearance:

    • Never enclose a block quote with quotation marks
    • Always start on a new line
    • Indent
    • Other options include:
      • Using a smaller type
      • Different font
      • Unjustified right margins
      • Shallower leading

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    See the example under the general block quote rules.
    MLA Rule: Block quotes should be used when the quotation is four lines or longer on a page.

    Appearance:

    • Indent left margin ½-inch if there are multiple paragraphs
    • Use block quote format when there are multiple paragraphs, even if the total number of lines is fewer than four, BUT maintain the original line breaks (see the post, “Slash” for rules on line breaks

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    When a block quote is required within the text, MLA rules call for:

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer adipiscing justo a arcu rutrum et auctor nibh sollicitudin. Nullam facilisis tristique purus, non volutpat purus fermentum sit amet.

    Nullam id est odio. Proin scelerisque eros vel risus gravida posuere pharetra arcu aliquet. Mauris sit amet tortor massa, imperdiet rutrum sem. In nec sapien urna. Praesent convallis elit quis nisi luctus suscipit.

    Words Into Type Rule: Puts the cutoff at five lines.

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    See the example under the general block quote rules.
    Dialogue Rule: When used to set apart a conversation, the quotation marks are outside the ending punctuation for that conversation. Greater detail on formatting dialogue can be found in the post, “Dialogue“.

    If dialogue runs for more than one paragraph, see the entry, Multiple Paragraphs of One Person Speaking.

    NOTE: This is different from a block quote.

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    “Okay,” he said, nodding in agreement, “I’ll get right on that.”
    Measurement Rule: Informal writing sometimes expresses feet and inches using a prime symbol.
    Periods and commas are placed outside the prime and double prime marks.

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    5′ 10″, i.e., 5 feet 10 inches
    f′(x) and f″(x)
    The event at (x, y,  z, t) in frame S has coordinates (x′, y′, z′, t′) in frame S′.
    Nickname Rule: Nicknames should be placed in quotation marks in the middle of a person’s actual name.

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    Georgetta “George” Mahon
    Captain “Sailor” Makepeace
    Colonel “Sahib” Crawford
    Punctuating In and Around Quotation Marks
    Rule: Current fashion insists that periods and commas always go inside quotation marks. All other punctuation marks go outside the quotation marks.

    Old Fashioned:
    The previous fashion makes more sense, as it conforms to the rules for question marks and exclamation points AND if the strict rules on proper usage of quotation marks hold true, punctuation marks not in the original text should be outside the quotes. Then there’s the question of violating parenthetical rules.

    British, Canadian, and current or former British territories (BCBT) place periods and other punctuation outside quotation marks.

    Sentence is the Quote Rule: Periods go inside the quotation mark.

    BCBT:
    Periods go outside the quotation mark.

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    Legend:

    1. Green indicates the punctuation

    “If you can tell stories, create characters, devise incidents, and have sincerity and passion, it doesn’t matter a damn how you write.” –Somerset Maugham

    “The best investments today,” according to Smith, “are commodities and emerging-market stocks.”

    Treated as dialogue.


    BCBT:
    “If you can tell stories, create characters, devise incidents, and have sincerity and passion, it doesn’t matter a damn how you write”. –Somerset Maugham

    My brother threatened that if I ate any more of his Cheetos, he’d, “Stuff a whole apple down my throat”.

    Quote Within a Sentence Depending upon the situation, there are different rules:

    No Comma,
    No Period
    Rule: This is usually a run-in quote, i.e., the quote is part of the sentence with no commas or periods.

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    Oh, meowww, Winston Churchill’s “I may be drunk, miss, but in the morning I will be sober and you will still be ugly” is wicked, lol.
    End of Quote is at End of Sentence Rule: When the quoted material is NOT the entire sentence…

    Current Fashion:
    Ending period is inside ending quotation mark.

    Comma is inside ending quotation mark.

    Old Fashioned & BCBT:
    Comma or ending period is outside quotation mark if the quoted material is not the whole sentence.

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    Current Fashion:
    As an editor, I have found that Somerset Maugham’s comment is quite true: “If you can tell stories, create characters, devise incidents, and have sincerity and passion, it doesn’t matter a damn how you write.”

    Elbert Hubbard’s comment, “Do not take life too seriously. You will never get out of it alive,” cracks me up.

    The sign said, “Walk.” Then it said, “Don’t Walk,” then, “Walk,” all within thirty seconds.


    He yelled, “Hurry up.”

    See the post on Dialogue.


    Old people at weddings always poke me and say “you’re next.” So I started doing the same thing to them at funerals.

    Quick, Funny Jokes


    History is stained with blood spilled in the name of “civilization.”

    My brother threatened that if I ate any more of his Cheetos, he’d “stuff a whole apple down my throat.”

    Old Fashioned & BCBT:
    As an editor, I have found that Somerset Maugham’s comment is quite true: “If you can tell stories, create characters, devise incidents, and have sincerity and passion, it doesn’t matter a damn how you write”.

    Elbert Hubbard’s comment, “Do not take life too seriously. You will never get out of it alive”, cracks me up.

    The sign said, “Walk”. Then it said, “Don’t Walk”, then “Walk”, all within thirty seconds.

    Old people at weddings always poke me and say “you’re next”. So I started doing the same thing to them at funerals.

    Quick, Funny Jokes


    History is stained with blood spilled in the name of “civilization”.

    My brother threatened that if I ate any more of his Cheetos, he’d “stuff a whole apple down my throat”.

    Parenthetical Reference Ends Sentence Rule: If a parenthetical reference follows the sentence, then the period goes outside the quotation mark.

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    Mullen, criticizing the apparent inaction, writes, “Donahue’s policy was to do nothing” (24).

    Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: “some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale” (78).

    Comma OR
    Period Within Sentence
    Rule:
    Current Fashion:
    Commas and periods go inside the quotation marks.

    Old Fashioned & BCBT:

    • Commas or periods go outside the quotation mark, UNLESS the comma is part of the text being quoted (also see Quoted Punctuation at Sentence End)
    • Question marks or exclamation points that are part of the quote go inside the quotes

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    Current Fashion:
    Markowitz believes “the inner whojigger is slotted into the whatsit,” and then the whatacallit will seat itself.

    Old Fashioned & BCBT:
    Markowitz believes “the inner whojigger is slotted into the whatsit”, and then the whatacallit will seat itself.

    Question Marks,
    Exclamation Points
    Part of the Quote Rule: Question marks and exclamation points that are part of the quote go inside the quotes. If it occurs at the end of the sentence, it suffices to end the entire sentence.

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    He said, You asked, Do you love me?

    He exclaimed, I heard you asking, Do you love me?!

    Malcolm X had the courage to ask the younger generation of American blacks, “What did we do, who preceded you?”

    At Sentence End Rule: If the question mark applies to the entire sentence, it goes outside the closing quotation mark.

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    Can you believe that she said, in front of everyone at the wedding, that she still has “a serious and undeniable crush on my new hubby’s brother”?

    Does Dr. Lim always say to her students, “You must work harder”?

    Who said, “Fame means when your computer modem is broken, the repair guy comes out to your house a little faster”?

    Quote Within a Quote Rule: Use single quotes when quoting anything within double quotes.

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    Mary asked, Will we be performing Dance of the Sugarplum Fairies this afternoon?

    Please stop saying, ‘I love you, he begged.

    I just heard Amazing Grace, she said.

    George, would you play that 50 cent song again? You know, Call Me, Madge asked.

    Quote Within a Quote Within a Quote Rule: If a quote is used inside a quote that is already inside a quote, alternate between double quotation marks and single quotes, i.e., the original quote uses double quotes, the inner quote uses single quotes, the quote that is inside that inner quote reverts back to the double quotes.

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    The author’s final argument is less convincing: “When Brown writes of ‘interpreting the matter through a “structuralist” lens,’ he opens himself to the same criticism he made earlier in his own paper.”

    (Credit to: The Punctuation Guide.)

    Semicolon Rule: Semicolons ALWAYS go outside of quotation marks.

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    Williams described the experiment as “a definitive step forward”; other scientists disagreed.

    Introducing a Quote
    Colon Introduces a Quote Rule: Colons ALWAYS go outside of quotation marks and are used:

    • When the text introducing the quoted material is an independent clause *   **
    • To introduce a block quotation

    * APA requires capitalizing a second independent clause that follows the colon.

    ** Chicago requires a single independent clause (following the colon) be lowercase. If two independent clauses, then capitalize both.

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    In Food Rules, Michael Pollan summarizes his extensive writing about food with seven words of advice: “Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants.”

    As part of a series of independent clauses, the period goes inside the quotation marks. See the post on “Colon“.


    Benedetto emphasizes three elements of what she calls her “Olympic journey”: family support, personal commitment, and great coaching.
    Comma Introduces a Quote Rule: Commas are frequently used to introduce quoted material. Also see the post on Dialogue.

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    Bluntly, he asked, “Do you have protection?”

    Steve Martin said, “A day without sunshine is like, you know, night.”

    Period Introduces a Quote Rule: May introduce a block quotation when the introductory text is an independent clause. A colon is sometimes a better choice.

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    I like Kelly’s sense of humor as well, yep, intergalactic historians works for me.

    “‘We find lost works of art and liberate them from their prisons.’

    ‘…fanciest “I steal things” I’ve ever heard.'”


    I like Kelly’s sense of humor as well, yep ,intergalactic historians works for me:

    “‘We find lost works of art and liberate them from their prisons.’

    ‘…fanciest “I steal things” I’ve ever heard.'”

    No Punctuation to Introduce a Quote Rule: When the quoted material is part of the sentence, do not use any punctuation before the quote.

    This type of introduction is common in run-in quotations and appropriate for introducing block quotations that also flow directly.

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    In her closing statement, the prosecutor spoke forcefully of the defendant’s “callous disregard for human life.”

    Though marshaling little evidence, the authors claim that “over half of British prisoners come from single-parent households.”

    We tried to persuade him, but he said “No way.”

    The phrase “be that as it may” appears far too often in this manuscript.

    Never Use Quotation Marks To:
    Add Words to a Quote Rule: Use brackets to add your own words (explanatory text, etc.) to a quote or text.

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    Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: “some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale” (78).
    Anchors for a Scale Rule: Use italics for identifying anchors of a scale.

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    Determine the best method — frequency, duration, or intensity — for measuring the targeted behaviors for the BRS.

    When setting anchor points for challenging behavior, one must determine appropriate behavior, duration, and frequency.

    Response options ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).

    Cite Linguistic Example Rule: Use italics to cite a letter, word, phrase, or sentence as a linguistic example. This is a use-mention distinction: the difference between using a word (or phrase) and mentioning it.

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    He explained the difference between loose and lose.

    Well, it’s either a yes or a no, darlin’.

    Decorative Initial Caps Rule: Drop caps or raised initials are sometimes used to start a new chapter or section. If it is part of a dialogue, either:

    • Do NOT include an opening quotation mark, or
    • Include the opening quote BUT keep it the basic text size

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    YES NO
    How now, fair maiden,” the villain whispered.

    OR

    How now, fair maiden,” the villain whispered.

    “How now, fair maiden,” the villain whispered.
    Foreign Words Rule: Use italics for foreign words that are not in an English language dictionary.

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    Ciao, baby,” he said.

    It’s best if we eat el helado within a few days.

    Marie is surprised you are tellement en avant, monsieur.

    Hedging,
    Sarcasm
    Rule: Use italics when using sarcasm (used for effect to further a position or bolster an argument).

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    YES NO
    I don’t care if you are club buddies. I don’t care if you are club buddies.
    Oh, sure, let’s make weapons so we can achieve world peace. Oh, sure, let’s “make weapons” so we can achieve world peace.
    Terms:
    Technical,
    Key
    Rule: Use italics for technical or key terms and not quotation marks.

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    YES NO
    An attribute is a label for HTML coding and defines the properties used to create a web page. An attribute is a label for HTML coding and defines the properties used to create a web page.

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