Word Confusion: Adduce vs Deduce vs Educe vs Induce

Posted October 29, 2015 by Kathy Davie in Author Resources, Self-Editing, Word Confusions

Revised as of 14 August 2017

This word confusion came about through my own curiosity. I think it was all those -uces that had me rolling adduce, deduce, and induce around in my mouth. Over and over, lol. At least, that was my excuse for exploring.

I did not expect to experience a further confusion with the difference between deduce and deduct!

Word Confusions started as my way of dealing with a professional frustration with properly spelled words that were out of context in manuscripts I was editing as well as books I was reviewing. It evolved into a sharing of information with y’all. I’m hoping you’ll share with us words that have been a bête noir for you from either end. Consider sharing this Word Confusion with friends by tweeting it.

Adduce Deduce Educe Induce
Credit to: Apple Dictionary.com; Dictionary.com: adduce

A photograph of Nessie in Loch Ness

“Loch Ness Monster” is Ad Meskens’ own work under the CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL licenses, via Wikimedia Commons

The existence of Nessie is adduced from various sightings over the centuries.

A magnifying glass, a meerschaum pipe, and a deerstalker cap on a table in front of a fire

“Sherlock Holmes’ Pipe and Hat” by Alterego is under GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0 licenses, via Wikimedia Commons

Thet’re the classic Holmes accessories before Sherlock heads out to deduce.

A basket of four wide-eyed kittens

“4 Kittens” by Pieter Lanser from The Netherlands (IMG_9051) is under the CC BY 2.0 license, via Wikimedia Commons

Such a picture of these sweet, wide-eyed kittens would educe a response from anyone.

A chunk of smithonsite rock induced with yellow

“Smithsonite” by Rob Lavinsky, iRocks.com is under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license, via Wikimedia Commons

A superb chunk of smithsonite has extra value due the unusual induced yellow color.

Part of Grammar:
Verb, transitive

Third person present verb: adduces
Past tense or past participle: adduced
Gerund or present participle: adducing

See also “Word Confusion: Deduce versus Deduct

Verb, transitive

Third person present verb: deduces
Past tense or past participle: deduced
Gerund or present participle: deducing

Verb, transitive

Third person present verb: educes
Past tense or past participle: educed
Gerund or present participle: educing

Verb, transitive

Third person present verb: induces
Past tense or past participle: induced
Gerund or present participle: inducing

Cite as evidence Arrive at a fact or a conclusion by reasoning

Draw as a logical conclusion

  • [Archaic] Trace the course or derivation of
[Formal] Bring out or develop something latent or potential

  • Infer something from data
Succeed in persuading or influencing someone to do something

Bring about or give rise to

  • Produce an electric charge or current or a magnetic state by induction
  • [Usually as an adjective, induced; Physics] Cause radioactivity by bombardment with radiation

[Medicine] Bring on the birth of a baby artificially, typically by the use of drugs

[Logic] Derive by inductive reasoning

A number of factors are adduced to explain the situation.

We could adduce many instances to corroborate this assertion.

One would expect Lebens to adduce evidence from other cases of state sanctions.

If, however, it will satisfy you that I adduce an illustration — Louisa Bellew was one of these.

Little can be safely deduced from these figures.

They deduced that the fish died because of water pollution.

He cannot deduce his descent wholly by heirs male.

Sherlock Holmes deducted occupations by studying physical characteristics and objects they own.

Out of love, obedience is to be educed.

More information can be educed from these statistics.

The gift of a puppy finally educed a response from the shy boy.

The pickets induced many workers to stay away.

None of these measures induced a change of policy.

This growing and shrinking magnetic field can induce electrical current in another wire that is held close to the first wire.

Neutron radiation induces radioactivity in body tissues.

The doctors had to induce delivery when the baby began to stress.

From the statistics on past events, we were able to induce a pattern to the storms.

Adjective: adduceable, adducible, unadduced, unadduceable, unadducible
Noun: adducer
Adjective: deducible, nondeducible, subdeducible
Adverb: deducibly
Noun: deducibility, deducibleness
Adjective: educible, eductive, uneduced
Noun: eduction
Adjective: induced, inducible, inductive
Adverb: inductively
Noun: inducer, induction, inductiveness
History of the Word:
Late Middle English from the Latin adducere, which is from ad- (toward) + ducere (to lead). Late Middle English in the sense of lead or convey and is from the Latin deducere, from de- (down) + ducere (lead). First known use was in 1603 and is from the Latin educere meaning lead out, from e-, a variant of ex-, (out) + ducere (to lead). Late Middle English (formerly also as enduce): from the Latin inducere meaning lead in, from in- (into) + ducere (to lead) or from the French enduire.

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