Glossary of Terms for
Art, Books, Computers, Therapy, Writing


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Your best source for taking the confusion out of technical terms — from KD Did It. This glossary of computer, art, and therapy terminology is designed to give artists a quick definition — and examples of HTML/CSS code as well as links where you can find more information.

If you’re looking for a computer or art term that is not listed in the Glossary of Terms Relating to Art, Computers, Therapy ++, please email Kathy.

A

Accessibility
Disability Access, Legal
Required for users who are disabled in some way and are not able to use a website easily or at all
Some of the considerations a website designer must consider includes:

  • Include alt="..." text and labels so that screenreading software can voice information for a seeing-impaired person
  • Provide a good color contrast
    • One example is color blindness which is experienced by some 5-20% of men and less than 1% of women
    • There is a website, Colorblind Web Page Filter, which will test your page for its contrast effectiveness
  • Make your text size big enough — and don’t make your smallest font size too small!
  • Enable flexible sizing of your font size
  • Provide information using links or labels for acronyms and abbreviations
  • Create intuitive navigation making it simple for users to move around in the website
Active Voice
Writing
The opposite of active voice is passive voice
The subject performs the action denoted by the verb.
For example:

  • Mary mailed the letter.
  • The guy must have eaten five pies!
  • Vampires tossed large chunks of asphalt into the air.
Address
Computers
Path that a browser or computer follows to find a file
For example:

  • A computer file address might read:
    • On a PC: ..\MyDocuments\MyWebs\kddidit\images\originals\bkgrdNavFooter.jpg, or
    • On a Mac: HD:Users:kathydavie:Documents:MyWebs:kdDidIt:
              images:originals:bkgrdNavFooter.jpg
  • A web address might read: http://www.w3.org/
    • If any part of this path is wrong, the file will not be found
Afterword
Writing
Written by someone other than the author of the book, generally as an ending, commentary, or some sort of final comments (Live Write Thrive)
.AI
Computers, Graphics, Typography
Adobe Illustrator image file
Uses vector graphics
Allegory
An allegory is a work of fiction in which the symbols, characters, and events come to represent, in a somewhat point-by-point fashion, a different metaphysical, political, or social situation. In Western culture, allegories have often been used for instructive purposes around Christian themes. For example, in John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, a protagonist named Christian goes on a journey in which he encounters complicating characters and situations such as Mr. Worldly Wiseman, Vanity Fair, and the Slough of Despair, thus depicting the struggles of a Christian trying to stay pure. In some ways Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Young Goodman Brown is structured as an allegory, as is evident in the character Faith, the Devil offering his snake-like staff, the temptation scene, and so on. Hawthorne skillfully manipulates the conventions of allegory, however, to resist a fixed meaning and create an ending that is open to interpretation (Virtual Lit).
Foster states that an allegory can evolve from a symbol once it is “reduced to standing for only one thing” with but one mission to accomplish. It must be clear. He cites George Orwell’s Animal Farm as an allegory that is simple to figure out (Foster, pp 105).
See also image or symbolism
Anthology
Books
A grouping of short stories in one book:

  • Various authors
  • Selected writings
    • Same literary form, OR
    • Of the same period, OR
    • On the same subject
Compare it against collection and omnibus under Short Stories
Approach format
Art
How a gallery/museum/alternative space prefers an artist new to them to contact them about an exhibition or seeking a space to show their work
ARC
Writing
Advanced reader copy
ARCs are printed or e-versions of your book that are given away for free to reviewers, bloggers, distributors, retail buyers, and other industry contacts
Think of it as a product sample
Archival
Art
Methods using acid-free supplies to preserve art and images
Assistive technology
Computers, Disability Access, Legal
Alternative methods for accessing and using the Internet
Depending upon the disability, people may use speech output, Braille displays or screen magnification, keyboard navigation versus the use of a mouse, voice-driven systems to access the Web, voice recognition for spoken commands, or the use of switch devices which can be controlled by head, mouth or eye movements.
Attribute
HTML, Websites
Label for HTML coding
Defines properties used to create a web page, see element
Only included in a start tag, <; never an end tag, /x>

You’ll know it’s an attribute when you see <a name="..." id="..."> (part of an anchor tag)

For example:
<img src="
../images/imageFromFile.gif
" alt="
This image is from my file
" />

src and alt are attribute tags

“..images/imageFromFile.gif” is the address for the image while “This image is…file” is an alt tag explaining what the image is about in case, for some reason, the picture does not appear on the user’s monitor

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B

Backlist
Books, Marketing, Publishing
All the books published over the years by a publishing company that have found a permanent audience, no matter how small. The best backlist books have a permanent spot on bookstore shelves, which whenever the store runs out of them, the same book gets re-ordered (Joel Friedlander).
Backlist, social media
Books, Marketing
This is about a blog’s article archives and includes foundation content, evergreen articles, process overviews, resource directories, and best practices (Joel Friedlander)
Although blog articles don’t have to prove themselves in the market the same way a book does, they have some of the same characteristics of great backlist books. Some kinds of articles that fall into this category include:

  1. Foundation content: articles that explain basic concepts will be in demand as long as those concepts are relevant to your readers
    • Word Confusions, definitions, grammar, Track Changes
  2. Evergreen articles: software changes constantly, but general principles rarely change, and people always want to understand them
    • Checklists for authors to have
  3. Process overviews: quick-reference summaries of basic processes in your field are great to orient new readers to your topic
    • Track changes??
  4. Resource directories: readers will always need tips on where to find tools, vendors, and other necessities
  5. Best practices: whittling down the number of choices beginners face to just a few appropriate options will be helpful to many people
    • Being consistent
    • Making your own checklist of words to pay attention to
Bar code
Books, Marketing, Publishing
A bar code is the graphic with vertical lines that encodes numerical information for scanning purposes. It’s used by warehouses to track their shipments and inventory as well as by the bookstore when selling your book to a buyer.
The U.S. standard is the EAN Bookland barcode using an Encapsulated PostScript Format (EPS) graphic image. Check out Joel Friedlander’s post on “Self-Publishing Basics: Deciphering the Bookland EAN Bar Code“. It’s funny and informative.
You must have an ISBN before you can get a barcode and if you are planning to add the MSRP (manufacturer’s (you) suggested retail price), you MUST be firm about the price at which you want to sell your story (you can always put it on sale at a discount!). You can skip adding the price, and then you won’t have to buy another barcode if you decide to change the price later.
Barcodes can be purchased through a variety of sources: your book designer, printing company, MyIdentifiers (a Bowker unit; stores it in your account and can be downloaded from there), or your own source.
Once a barcode is made, it cannot be revised. If you want to change the price of an item, you must purchase a new bar code. However, you can use the same ISBN as long as the product and price have not changed.M
Bitmap graphics
Graphics
Also known as “raster graphics”
Used by paint programs
Not easily scalable; can look fuzzy
Uses dots to compose the image (see “resolution)
.BMP
Graphics
Bitmap
File format used for digital images
One bit per pixel
Uncompressed (saves as huge files)
Bookplate
Books, Marketing
A.k.a., ex libris, meaning from the library of
Placed inside the front cover of a book to denote the owner
Bot
Computers, Internet
A.k.a., robot

A program used on the Internet to perform mindless, automated tasks such as web crawling, searching for people’s email addresses so they can send spam to them

Usually includes its URL and/or an email address so the bot’s operator can be found by a webmaster
A benign example is a spider which reads pages on websites and indexes the words used on that website. These words become keywords.
Bounce rates, hard or soft
Marketing
Email marketing metrics
A bounce is when an email can’t be delivered:

  • Hard – can’t be delivered for permanent reasons, such as it’s a fake address, the email domain isn’t real, the recipient’s server won’t accept emails. Remove this email from your address list to retain your sender reputation.
  • Soft – can’t be delivered for temporary reasons, such as a full inbox, email file is too big, etc. If that address keeps popping up for several days that it can’t be delivered, delete it.
It’s important “try to keep your total bounce rate under 2% — much higher than that, and you’ll start noticing some deliverability issues (HubSpot).
Broadside
Original term for a landscape-oriented page
Browser
Computers, Internet
A software program which enables you to access the Internet
Some of the more popular browsers include Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, Mozilla’s Firefox, Apple's Safari, and Opera.
They are all free
Burnish
Art
Rubbing or polishing with a tool to:

  • Make a surface smooth
  • Turn an edge and flatten it
  • Transfer a product onto a surface
  • Make a surface shiny or lustrous

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Button States
CSS, HTML, Websites
Refers to the appearance of a “button” link on a website
A “button” may have up to four different looks depending on:

  • if it is a link
  • if it has been "pushed" by clicking with a mouse
  • if it has used to indicate the user's location in the website, or
  • if it has previously been clicked by the user
Different programs and/or web designers use different terms to refer to the same states:
Adobe Dreamweaver uses:
Down Button appears to have been pressed
Out, a.k.a., “up” Appears when page is first loaded
Off Button does not function
Over, a.k.a., “on” or “hover” Changes appearance when a viewer moves his/her mouse over it
Over While Down Allows the button to look pressed and still change its appearance when the viewer “hovers” over it
Adobe Flash uses:
Up Appearance of the button when the mouse is not over it
Over, a.k.a., “hover”
Down Button's appearance when the viewer clicks on it
Hit Defines the area that will respond to a mouse click

  • Without a “hit” area, the viewer must click on the actual letter in the text

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C

Call-to-action
Marketing
CTA
Encouraging viewers and potential buyers to follow through and spend their money or sign up for something by using text and links
Converting leads into sales
Typical language includes register, download, subscribe, enroll, buy, get, follow, share, update, tweet, sign up, start, contact, watch, etc.
Camera-ready artwork
Graphics
Crisp, black-and-white printout of desired image
Image must be saved as:

  • If using Adobe Illustrator:
    • Save as either an EPS or an AI file
  • If using Adobe Photoshop:
    • Save with an EPS file extension
    • Only as a 4-color graphic process
    • Use CMYK color format
    • Type must be in vector format
  • At the desired, final size
  • Convert all text and graphics to outlines or paths
CAPTCHA
Computers, Internet, Security
Small box of really weird text that a user has to type into to prove that s/he is a human so the site can avoid spam bots, etc. You can’t provide a text alternative as it would make the CAPTCHA accessible to a spam bot so you need”text that describes the purpose of the CAPTCHA and [provide] alternate forms usng different modalities…to address the needs of people with different disabilities” (Non-Text).
.CDR
Graphics
File format used by CorelDRAW, a digital image processing software program
File format used for digital images
Good software program but rarely used due to the difficulty in sharing its files across software programs
Certificate authority
Computers, Security, Websites
Company authorized to provide digital signatures

  • VeriSign is considered a very reliable and reputable source
CGI
Programming, Viewer Interaction, Websites
Computer Graphic Interface
Requires server-side interaction
Character development
Writing
Two primary characters exist in every fictional story: the protagonist and the antagonist

  • Protagonist is the hero/heroine, the story’s main character
  • Antagonist is the anti-hero, the character or force in conflict with the protagonist
Main characters need to be well-rounded, complex and fully developed with the capacity to change; ideally, they engage the reader (Virtual Lit)
Character arc
Writing
Character growth or change
The internal change that a character undergoes over the course of a story is called the character arc. At the beginning, he views himself and the world one way, but through growth and inner transformation, he comes to view his life on a deeper, more meaningful level. – Becca Puglisi
Child
CSS, HTML, Websites
Relates to classes assigned to selectors in CSS coding
In CSS, it is possible to create “classes”, sub-categories of a selector such as ul.footer. The selector is ul and the child class is .footer (I generally use ul.footer to set up my footer menu).
Using a child/class, allows you to change only those property:values of the parent selector that you choose.
selector
ul.footer { font-size : 0.85em;}
parent . child property value
declar ation
Children
The age ranges for children vary even more than for teens and are more dependent upon the individual child’s reading development level. Ideally, a reader shouldn’t read too much into the age range but explore books outside the indicated age ranges for their child. That said, the age ranges noted below are a useful general guide.

  • Babies and Toddlers – 0–2
  • Ages 3–25
  • Ages 6–29
  • Middle grade – 8–212
Young Adult is the next age range up.
Class
CSS, HTML, Websites
A.k.a., child
Label for CSS coding which modifies a selector
Client-side
Programming, Websites
Code or script which does not require the web host’s server
Uses the viewer’s computer to “chat back and forth”
See also “server-side

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CMYK
Graphics, Print
Cyan-magenta-yellow-black
Subtractive color model
A color process used for your printed images
Use for images you intend to print
Code point
HTML, Publishing, Websites
A.k.a., character code
A grouping of letters and characters used to represent a particular symbol or accented letter
For example (spaces are inserted to prevent the browser from showing the character it represents):

  • & a m p ; is the code point for &
  • & q u o t ; is the code point for "
The & and the ; enclose the group; it tells the browser this is a code from the UTF-8
Code points also can recreate diacritic marks on the Internet and in eBooks, e.g., é or Ö
Collection
Books, Publishing
A grouping of short stories in one book:

  • Same author
  • Reprinted works of various themes
Compare it against anthology and omnibus under Short Stories
Collections of short stories
Books, Publishing
The proper name for a book of short stories will depend on whether a similar theme is used and whether the same or different authors have written the stories

  • Anthology
    • Various authors
    • Selected writings
      • Same literary form, OR
      • Of the same period, OR
      • On the same subject
  • Collection
    • Same author
    • Reprinted works of various themes
  • Omnibus
    • Same author
    • Reprinted works related in interest or theme
Cookies
Computers, Internet
Cookies are textual information about you that is sent to you by a web server. This information is sent back and forth between you and the server and is used to track your preferences, contents of your shopping cart, know which part of a class or session you should be in, authenticate that you are who you say you are, etc.
A cookie is not a virus but it can be used as spyware. Browser mechanisms are usually set to read cookies, and, while mostly benign, they “can be used as spyware. Anti-spyware products may warn users about some cookies because cookies can be used to track people or violate privacy concerns” (Wikipedia).
CPL
Typography, Websites
Characters per line
There is an optimum number of characters or words beyond which it becomes more difficult for readers to follow the line of text, a.k.a., readability
Naturally, experts differ on the ideal CPL, but the range appears to be from 50 to 75 CPL
Use Chris Pearson’s Golden Ratio Typography Calculator to determine the ideal content width, font-size, and line-height.
You can increase the readability by increasing the font-size and line-height.
CSS
CSS, Websites
Cascading StyleSheet
Tells the browser:

  • Where to position graphics, text, and all other page parts on a web page
  • What colors to use for everything
  • The sizes of the individual parts of the page
  • Where to find graphics to use on the web page
  • And more, oh, so much more!
Uses external, internal, and inline stylesheets
Benefits of using CSS include:

  • Ability to create a single external stylesheet from which changes are made to a single file which affect all the pages on a website (see also “external CSS link
  • Enables faster loading of individual web pages because the browser only has to load the one stylesheet
  • Ability to create specific stylesheets to permit an efficient printing of specific parts of web pages

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D

Declaration
CSS, HTML, Websites
Label for the property:value portion of the CSS element code
p { font-size : 1em ;}
selector { property : value ;}
declar ation
Deprecated
CSS, HTML, Websites
An element or attribute that has become updated and may become obsolete with future updated browsers.
As future browser versions are released, there is less and less support for deprecated elements which means parts of your website won’t work.
Detail shot
Art, Graphics
Close-up image of a small, interesting detail of an individual “art piece”
Diacritic marks
Editing, Writing
Diacritic marks are the accents, graves, cedillas, umlauts, over dots, under dots, and more that can be found on all sorts of letters. I’ve got a few of the basics memorized, but there are many that I rarely encounter or are impossible to find, so I’ve made up my own collection — that keeps getting added to!
Examples include déjà, café, résumé, Françoise, bitte schön, Sûreté
If you find a need for an obscure diacritic, visit Chart of Diacritical Marks on KD Did It.
Dialect
Writing
Dialect is how they structure their sentences and the words or idioms they choose to use.
To explore more, check out the Grammar Explanation on “Dialect“.
Dialogue
Writing
Dialogue is the formatting of what a character is saying, texting, or writing.
It is a critical component of a story as it allows characters to communicate with each other and with the reader.
This post on “Dialogue” is concerned with the mechanics of dialog. How to punctuate conversations of any sort, convey character emotions, AND keep the reader subconsciously informed as to who is speaking.
Diction
Writing
Author’s choice of words
Diction is a literary device and involves the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing and how it affects dialect.
Download
Computers, Websites
Transfer files, images, words, programs, etc. from the Internet to your computer
Also see “Upload
dpi
Graphics, Typography
Dots per inch
Measure of the printer’s density of dot (e.g. ink droplet) placement

E

Element
CSS, HTML, Websites
In CSS, selectors, the chunks of code you create, are elements.
In HTML, an element consists of a start tag, content, and an end tag — styling an element: paragraph <p>, lists <ul>/<ol>, tables <table>, headings <h1>, to name just a few.
<p> Then the content slips in here. </p>
<td> Then the content slips in here. </td>
<Start tag> Content (your contribution) </End tag>
Embedding
CSS, HTML, Websites
Now deprecated in HTML 4.0 and replaced by <object>
However, it’s not yet fully supported by all browsers (as of June 2010)
Epigraph
Book Layout, Writing
Short quotation at the start of a chapter or a section
Regarding fair use of musical lyrics, consult the It is up to the song’s publisher the actual songwriter to defend and protect those rights
Regarding fair use of poetry in an epigraph, consult the Poetry Foundation. Be sure to include a credit to the poet and the poem’s title.
Epilogue
Writing
C.S. Lakin at Live Write Thrive provides a great definition: “summarizes and reflects on the story as a whole. It isn’t the ‘ending’ of the novel’s plot. A true epilogue will feel different from the rest of the novel, and may be presented as if years later, with a character reflecting back on the whole story or telling how things turned out for all the players. The kind of thing we see often in plays, where a character sums everything up (think The Tempest or A Midsummer Night’s Dream)” (Live Write Thrive).
.EPS
Graphics
Encapsulated Postscript Format
File format used for digital images
Used to store vector images so applications that work with Postscript can read or edit them
More closely related to TIF documents
Ex libris
Books, Marketing
See Bookplate
External CSS link
CSS, HTML, Websites
Code inserted inside the <head> tag of a web page
<link type=
“text/css”
rel=
“stylesheet”
href=
“CSS/styles.css”>

Causes the CSS stylesheet to communicate with that HTML page

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F

Fair Use
Copyright, Graphics, Quotes, Text, Writing
Section 107 also sets out four factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use is fair:

  1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes
  2. The nature of the copyrighted work
  3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
  4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work
  5. The distinction between what is fair use and what is infringement in a particular case will not always be clear or easily defined
There is no specific number of words, lines, or notes that may safely be taken without permission.
Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission (Library of Congress: Fair Use).
Faux column
CSS, HTML, Websites
Tiling does not work in a confined section of a webpage so if you are using a particular image or color in a sidebar and that sidebar’s height varies depending on a page’s contents, you want to use a faux column effect
A good example is the sidebars on this glossary page versus the sidebars on the Home page
File
Computers
In computerese, a “file” is a document, image, graph, webpage, etc. that is saved on a computer
In this instance, a “file” is the webpage you saved under your root folder, or an image you saved under your images folder, or…
File compression
Compression, Computers, Graphics
Used primarily for graphic images. Graphic images can be so big that they cannot be sent via email. By using a file compression format, you can “squeeze” the file into a smaller size.
In Adobe Photoshop, a graphic file can be compressed by choosing File > Save for Web & Devices
Macintosh and Windows use a variety of different file compression programs. The most popular are:

  • StuffIt Expander (Macintosh)
  • WinZip (Windows)
File extension
Computers
3- or 4-letters that follow a computer file name, for example:

  • .doc / .pdf / .tif / .jpg
    • My story.doc
    • dog.bmp
  • .jpeg / .tiff / .html
Useful for the user as it indicates the software program used to save the file
ALWAYS preceded by a period

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Folder
Computers, Organization
A “folder” is capable of holding multiple file(s)
It can also hold multiple folders
Ideal for organizing the hard drive on your computer
A root folder is another type of “folder”
Forward(ing)
Websites
A service provided by the company which registers your domain name
The registering company may provide a hosting service which you choose not to use so when a user types in your web address, their inquiry must be “forwarded” to where your web site is being hosted
Foreword
Writing
Written by someone other than the author of the book, generally as an introduction, commentary, or some sort of prefatory comments (Live Write Thrive)
Read more in the Word Confusion post, “Foreword versus Forward“.
FTP
Websites
File Transfer Protocol
A process by which files are up- or downloaded to the Internet
See also SFTP
Function
Programming, Websites
Separate, small program that performs a few actions
When used with JavaScript, it “keep[s] the browser from executing a script when the page loads” W3C.
Best placed in the <head> section

G

Galley
Editing, Publishing
See ARC
Genre
A genre is a category of literature, characterized by similarities in form, style, or subject matter.
Check out the post on “Writing & Reading: Genres” for even more detail.
Genres include:

  • Fantasy
    • Paranormal
    • Urban Fantasy
  • Fiction
    • Chick Lit
    • Literature
  • History
  • Horror
  • Military
  • Mystery
    • Amateur Sleuth
    • Cozies
    • Crime
    • Detective
    • Historical Mystery
    • Police Procedural
    • Private Investigator
  • New Adult
  • Romance
    • Romance Sub-genres:
      • Contemporary
      • Historical Romance
      • Inspirational Romance
      • Paranormal Romance
      • Romantic Suspense
      • Young Adult Romance
    • Sexual Distinctions of the Romance Genre:
      • Erotic Romance
      • Erotica
      • Porn
      • Sexy Romance
  • Science Fiction
    • Alternate Planes of Existence
    • Alternate Timeline
    • Dystopian
    • Parallel World/Universe
    • Space Opera
    • Steampunk
  • Suspense
  • Thriller
.GIF
Graphics
Graphics Interchange Format
File format used for digital images
Designed to compress images to make them as small as possible using lossless compression
Internally compressed bitmap
Best for Internet use where quality is not an issue and you need a small file size

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Global changes
Programming, Websites
Change information in one file and it applies that change to every page in the website when you save and upload that file to your website
Glossies
Graphics
Shiny-surfaced, smooth photographic print
Generally refers to an 8" x 10" size
Usually in black-and-white
Usually requested by newspapers, magazines, and art festivals

H

Hack
Programming, Websites
A.k.a., work-around
A bit of code written to fix a specific problem in a version of a browser
Hard code
HTML, Websites
Many web editors provide shortcut options to create links — DO NOT trust them
These types of links always break or they create a link to the file on your computer
You want links which connect to your UPloaded files:

  • NOT ...My Documents\websites\kddidit.com\howICanHelp.html (a link to a file on your computer)
  • NOT ..howICanHelp.html (shortcut; always breaks)
  • YES https://kddidit.com/howICanHelp.html (a link to a page on the Internet)

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Hard drive
Computers
Generically used to refer to the box that holds the CD/DVD drive, memory, fans, etc. into which you plug all the peripherals used with a computer such as a printer, scanner, monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, etc.
A.k.a., the computer
Specifically refers to a small piece of hardware installed inside the “computer” that acts as the storage unit holding your software, drivers, files, and folders.
Horizontal rule
CSS, HTML, Websites
Horizontal line that spans all or part of a page acting as a divider
HTML code to insert a horizontal line is <hr color="#xxxxxx">

I

Icon
Computers, Graphics, Marketing, Typography
Small image that takes the place of text and is meant to catch the eye
Can represent an action, a program, or device on a computer operating system
Identifier
Books, Publishing
Recognizes a book as unique using ISBNs, SANs, and barcodes
Image
As it relates to symbols and allegory
An image is a sensory impression used to create meaning in a story. For example, near the beginning of “Young Goodman Brown,” we see Faith, Brown’s wife, “thrust her own pretty head into the street, letting the wind play with the pink ribbons of her cap.” While visual imagery such as this is typically the most prominent in a story, good fiction also includes imagery based on the other senses: sound, smell, touch, and taste (Virtual Lit).

  • Visual = sight
  • Aural = sound, e.g., the soft hiss of skis
  • Olfactory = smell, e.g., the smell of spilled beer, frying onions, popcorn in a movie theater
  • Tactile = touch, e.g., bare feet on a hot sidewalk, the softness of velvet,
  • Gustatory = taste, e.g., the bland taste of starchy bananas
See also allegory or symbolism
Image editing software
Graphics
Enables you to adjust the size, brightness, content, color, angle, contrast, resolution, etc. of an image to varying degrees
Examples include:

  • Adobe Photoshop
  • Windows’ Paint
  • Apple’s iPhoto
Image organizing software
Graphics, Organization
Enables you to better control how much computer memory is used to store images
Instead of saving multiple copies of the same image in different folders, organizing software uses keywords, (also known as “indexing”)

  • Keywords are used to sort the images into “albums” (iPhoto) or “folders” (Photo Gallery)
  • The original images are kept intact and will always be available through iPhoto or Photo Gallery

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Internally compressed bitmap
Computers, Graphics
Compression is a method of storing data in less space by squeezing it
Internet
Computers, Internet
A.k.a., the World Wide Web, www, the ‘net
iPhoto
Computers, Graphics, Organization
Image manipulation/editing and organizing software program available through iLife on a Macintosh computer
ISBN
Books, Publishing
International Standard Book Number
Bowker is the U.S. distributor of ISBNs
Each version of a book in each format — hardcover, paperback, audio, MOBI, PDF, and ePUB needs its own ISBN and acts as an ordering number. Bowker provides a list of what does not require an ISBN.
Its purpose is to establish and identify one title or edition of a title, in a specific format, from one specific publisher and helps your book be discovered more easily (Bowker).
Purchasing an ISBN through an agency other than Bowker means that they are your publisher.
ISSN
Books, Publishing
International Standard Serial Number
It’s assigned to serials: magazines, periodicals, newsletters, newspapers, journals, magazines, annuals) whether published in print, online, or other media (such as CD, DVD, etc.) with each medium version assigned a separate ISSN (U.S. ISSN Center).
Free and available from the Library of Congress (LOC) by filling out a form and including the required sample.
The LOC service does NOT include a barcode.

J

Jacket copy
Marketing, Writing
a.k.a., sales copy
Information that appears on the back of your book and includes the book description, an author bio, endorsements, etc.
.JPG
.JPEG
Graphics
Joint Photographic Experts Group
File format used for digital images
Used extensively for photos used or sent on the Internet / continuous tone images
Very popular with Web designers
Internally compressed bitmap
Uses lossy compression

K

Keyword
Marketing, SEO
Carefully chosen words which are specific to a topic or website
From a viewer’s standpoint, keywords are those words or phrases used when doing a search on a particular topic or for a particular type of website
Indexed by bots and used to help direct searchers to the desired website(s)

L

LCC
Books, Publishing
Library of Congress Control Number
Different from a copyright registration number. The Cataloging in Publication (CIP) Division of the Library of Congress is responsible for assigning LC Control Numbers and is operationally separate from the Copyright Office. A book may be registered in or deposited with the Copyright Office but not necessarily cataloged and added to the Library’s collections.
For information about obtaining an LC Control Number, see the following website: http://www.loc.gov/publish/pcn/. For information on International Standard Book Numbering (ISBN), write to: ISBN, R.R. Bowker, 630 Central Ave., New Providence, NJ 07974. Call (800) 269-5372. For further information and to apply online, see www.isbn.org. For information on International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN), write to: Library of Congress, National Serials Data Program, Serial Record Division, Washington, DC 20540-4160. Call (202) 707-6452. Or obtain information from www.loc.gov/issn.
Link
HTML, Internet, Websites
Also known as a “hyperlink”
Uses an HTML code to create an address which, when clicked, connects the viewer to other web pages

<a href="http://www.yoursite.com>
Your Site
<a>

If the desired link is to an external website, it’s usually best to have it open into a new window. Add target="_blank" to the <a> address

<a href="http://www.yoursite.com/target="_blank">
Someone Else’s Site<a>

There are three states for coding a link in CSS:

  • Unvisited – an unclicked link
    • Uses some version of a brightish blue color
    • Represented as a in CSS
      • a:link adds a special style to an unvisited link (W3C)
  • Visited – a link that has been clicked
    • Helps the viewer know when s/he has already clicked that link
    • Uses some version of a purple color
    • Represented as a:visited in CSS
  • Hover – appearance of a link when a viewer’s mouse is stationary over it
    • Confirms to the viewer that it is a link
    • Color is your choice
    • Represented as a:hover in CSS
  • Active – indicates a change in the link text when the viewer hovers over a link that s/he has not yet clicked
    • Color and decoration is your choice
    • Represented as a:active in CSS

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Local/Network
Computers, Internet, Websites
A type of protocol used to upload pages to the Internet
Generally refers to an internal website accessible only for company employees or the occupants of a house
Lossless data compression
Compression, Graphics
Type of digital image compression
A.k.a., lossless compression
No data information is lost when it is compressed
Lossy data compression
Compression, Graphics
Type of digital image compression
A.k.a., lossy compression
Some data information is deleted or lost forever

M

Marketing, inbound
Marketing
Creating value that helps your subscriber at different stages of a subscriber’s lifecycle and sharing it with the “world”, i.e., the Internet (HubSpot)

  • Personalize the message to the subscriber as you learn more about potential clients/readers
  • Figure out which social media channels your subscribers use to respond to you
  • Use publishing and analytic tools together, so you can focus on posting the right content in the right place at the right time
Four ways to market:

  • Attract the people who are most likely to want what you’re selling by using:
    • Blogs – create content that grabs their attention and answers their questions
    • Social Media – spread the word of what you’re saying on your blog, talk to them, let them know you’re a real person. Spend time on the social media where your ideal buyers spend their time.
    • Keywords – Find out what words and phrases your customers use “on a search engine to find something they have questions about. You need to make sure you’re appearing prominently when they search. To get there, you need to carefully, analytically pick keywords, optimize your pages, create content, and build links around the terms your ideal buyers are searching for.”
    • “Pages – You must optimize your website to appeal to and speak with your ideal buyers. Transform your website into a beacon of helpful content to entice the right strangers to visit your pages.”
  • Convert (turn) visitors to your site into leads
    • Gather their contact information, at least their email addresses
    • Offer them something in return, i.e., ebooks, whitepapers, or tip sheets — whatever information would be interesting and valuable to each of your visitors
    • Tools to help with conversion include:
      • Calls-to-Action buttons or links that encourage your visitors to take action, like “Download a Whitepaper” or “Attend a Webinar”.
      • Landing pages are where the offer in the call-to-action is fulfilled, and where the prospect submits information that makes them a lead
      • Forms for your visitor to fill out, giving you that essential email address
    • Leads must be kept track of in some kind of centralized marketing database
      • Having all in one place helps you make sense out of every interaction you’ve had with your contacts — email, a landing page, social media, etc.
  • Close means transforming those leads into customers:
    • Closing tools include:
      • Lead scoring is knowing when to contact your lead
      • Emails with useful, relevant content can build trust with a prospect and help them become more ready to become a customer
      • Marketing automation is a process involving email marketing that pinpoints what they were interested in on your site in the first place (or places!)
      • Closed-loop reporting tells you which marketing efforts are bringing in the best leads
  • Delight your customers into continuing with you. Engage them with more excellent content and encourage them to buy more:
    • Tools used to delight customers include:
      • Smart calls-to-action that present different users with offers that change based on buyer persona and lifecycle stage
      • Using various social media platforms to provide real-time customer service
      • Email and marketing automation to provide existing customers with remarkable content that can help them achieve their own goals, as well as introduce new products and features that might be of interest to them
Meme
Writing
Coined by Richard Dawkins in 1976
An idea, pattern of behavior, practice, or style that spreads quickly from person to person within a given cultural context (Alena Graedon’s The Word Exchange)
Meta tag
HTML, Websites
Coding statement that describes the contents of a web page
A wide variety of specific meta tags are possible:
  • Author
  • Copyright
  • Description *
  • Keywords **
  • Language
  • Title *

* Essential in improving your page rank

** Spiders look for keywords in a meta tag as well as extremely similar words used within the page

Mood
Writing
Underlying feeling or atmosphere produced by a story

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N

Naming convention
Computers, Organization, Websites
A standard by which the reader can determine something from a small amount of information
Some examples of conventions include:

  • The corner of 5th & Main tells you a location
  • 1-800- is probably part of a phone number
  • “mm” refers to millimeters
Files for websites ALWAYS uses a small letter to begin a file name, e.g., “aboutKathyDavie.html”, “navTop.gif”, “contact.html”, “portfolio.html”, “logo.jpg”, etc.
There are three types of naming conventions for web design use:

  • camelBack
  • under_score
  • hyphen-ated
Neutral position
Ergonomics
Relaxed, balanced posture of the body which permits a neutral alignment
Stress to joints and muscles is minimized
Even better if you can incorporate Pilates training with its emphasis on core strength
New Adult
Technically a genre, but most readers see it as focused on a reading audience that is young but older than Young Adult
As a book or series genre, its protagonists are in the 18-25 age bracket
Novel
Books, Writing
A book that is 80,000 to 100,000 words
DAW The average length of the novels we publish varies, but is almost never fewer than 80,000 words.
Novella
Books, Writing
A short book that is considerably longer than a short story but shorter than a novel
Must be able to stand on its own as a book
The word count may range from 20,000 to 60,000 words; different organizations, publishers, and contests may use a different range.
If published in its own individual binding, italicize its title

O

Object
CSS, HTML, Websites
As of HTML 4, <object> is intended to replace <embed> and <img> but not all browsers are supporting it yet
Omnibus
Books, Publishing
A grouping of short stories in one book:

  • Same author
  • Reprinted works related in interest or theme
Compare it against anthology and collection under Short Stories
OpenType
Typography
Considered a fusion font format because it combines Postscript and TrueType
See also TrueType or PostScript
Optimization
Computers, Graphics
The primary purpose involves compressing an image to reduce it in size visually as well as to reduce its file size in order to speed up a web page opening
It also makes it more likely the image will be small enough in size to send as an email attachment while retaining a certain level of quality

P

Pace, narrative
Writing
Pace plays an important role in the narrative. Through the correct use of pacing, the writer can keep the reader on the edge of his seat and then give the same reader a bit of a reprieve when the plot becomes tense. This element of writing determines whether the person reading the book continues to read or puts it down because of boredom.
Page proofs
Editing
So-called because they are laid out as exactly as they will appear in the final printed book.
Page rank
Marketing
Position a website occupies after a search using a search engine such as Google or Bing
The higher your rank, the more likely your website is to appear on the first page of a list of searched websites
Paint
Graphics
Image manipulation/editing software program available for free on a Windows-based computer
Panster
Writing
Someone who dives in and writes by the seat of their paints. No planning ahead of time.
Parent
CSS, HTML, Websites
Relates to selectors in CSS coding
In CSS, it is possible to create “classes”, sub-categories of a selector such as ul.footer. When a class is created, the selector is referred to as the “parent”, in this case, ul. The class created is then referred to as the “child”, .footer.
UL is a selector frequently used in a CSS stylesheet. Frequently enough that you’ll need classes/subcategories, or children for uls. Some examples include ul.menuTop, ul.table, etc.
selector
ul.menu { margin-left : 0.5em ;}
parent . child { property : value ;}
declar ation
Passive Voice
Writing
The opposite of passive voice is active voice
The subject of the sentence is being acted upon.
For example:

  • The letter was mailed by Mary.
  • Five pies were eaten by the guy.
  • Large chunks of asphalt were tossed into the air by vampires.
PC
Computers
Personal computer
Typically runs a Windows operating system (OS)
.PDF
Portable Document Format
Used by Adobe Acrobat

  • Adobe Acrobat is used to create & save the text file or the form file as well as enable the user to create a form which anyone can fill out
  • Adobe Acrobat Reader permits anyone to open and read a PDF file but not to access it
Originally developed for cross-platform use

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Photo Gallery
Computers, Graphics, Organization
Image manipulation/editing and organizing software program available for free on a Windows-based computer
Photoshop
Computers, Graphics
Image manipulation/editing professional software program available for both PC and Macintosh
Manufactured by Adobe
php
Programming, Websites
Stands for “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor”
A scripting language that is ideal for use in developing a Web site
Can be embedded into HTML
Must be used server-side
Pixel
Graphics
(pix) picture (el) element
Smallest single unit that goes into making up a digital image
May use a square or a circle as its single unit
Depending on usage, it can take from 1- to 8-pixels to make up 1 byte

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Plot
Writing
The series of events that give a story its meaning and effect, due to the conflict experienced by the main character. The conflict may come from something external, like a dragon or an overbearing mother, or it may stem from an internal issue, such as jealousy, loss of identity, or overconfidence. As the character makes choices and tries to resolve the problem, the story’s action is shaped and plot is generated. In some stories, the author structures the entire plot chronologically, with the first event followed by the second, third, and so on, like beads on a string. However, many other stories are told with flashback techniques in which plot events from earlier times interrupt the story’s current events.
The usual pattern of a plot is (Virtual Lit):

  1. Introduction of the character and the conflict facing him/her
  2. Issues or complications that arise as the character attempts to deal (or not) with the problems
  3. Tension and drama rises toward the climax of the conflict
  4. Climax: the most dramatic, tense moment of the story ___
  5. Resolution finds the conflict resolved and the drama drifts away into the end of the story
Read more in the post, “Plot, Its Beats and Devices
.PNG
Graphics
Portable Network Graphics
File format used for digital images
Ideal for when you really, really have to have an invisible background on the Internet BUT still not widely supported
Bitmap image
Uses internal lossless data compression
Created to replace the GIF format
Use with gray scale, RGB, or palette-based 24-bit RGB colors
Cannot be used with CMYK (print images)
POD, see Print-on-Demand
Publishing
Point-of-View (POV)
Writing
The source and scope of the narrative voice, who is observing and relating events in the story
The author’s choice of point-of-view will determined the story’s voice and what information can be given to the reader (Virtual Lit).
Read more in the post, “Point-of-View and Perspective are Intertwined Yet Distinct“.
Postscript
Typography
Page description language, which evolved from InterPress at Adobe “designed to describe any printed ‘event’ on a page” Felici
Installed on printers to enable fancier page layouts than the old typewriter-styled pages
Not linked to a specific printer, computer, operating system, or softwe
Uses a scalable, vector-based image
See also TrueType or OpenType
ppi
Computers, Graphics
Pixels per inch
The greater number of pixels used per inch, the higher the resolution of the image
Print-on-Demand
Books, Publishing
a.k.a., POD, on-demand book printing
A book is not printed until a customer buys it.
Prologue
Writing
Material related and connected to the rest of the book, not something ancillary (Live Write Thrive)
Introduce characters or the purpose of the main story by establishing a background that sets the scene, conflict, and/or purpose for the story and/or its characters that is to come.
Clive Cussler’s NUMA Files and Dirk Pitt series have excellent examples of a prologue.
.PSD
Graphics
Used with Adobe PhotoShop
File format used for digital images
Used for original images
To use on the Internet, the file/image must be saved as a PNG, JPG, or GIF
To print out, the file/image may be saved as a TIF, PNG, JPG, or GIF

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Pseudo-class
CSS, HTML, Websites
Add special effects to a selector — a:link
Useful for minor visual effects
Publisher
Books, Publishing
There are three kinds of publishers:

  • Traditional
  • Independent
  • Self
Traditional publishers are a.k.a., New York publishers, legacy publishing, corporate publishing, the Big 5
Independent publishers are everyone not the Big 5 and includes Apple, Amazon, and Smashwords???? It is sometimes defined as self-publishing.
Self-publishers are individual authors

R

.RAW
Computers, Graphics
Image data from a digital camera or scanner
File format used for digital images
Sometimes referred to as a “digital negative”
Not directly usable as an image until processed through an imaging software program
Standard file extension used when original photos first downloaded from a digital camera
Used for original images by professionals
RDS

Radio Data System (European Broadcasting Union)
Radio Broadcast Data System (U.S. version)
Protocol sending small amounts of digital information using conventional FM radio broadcasts on a 57kHz subcarrier wave
Information transmitted includes time, track and/or artist information, and station identification
Resolution
Graphics
Number of pixels used to create the image. The more pixels used, the greater the number of color values that are possible and the better the image
It also means a very large file size

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RGB
Computers, Graphics
Red-green-blue
Additive color model
Color process used for your digital and/or Internet-intended images
RGB, palette-based 24-bit
Computers, Graphics
Highest color depth normally used
Available on most modern monitors and software
RGBA
Computers, Graphics, Websites
Lets you set the transparency of the color
Ranges from 1 to 10 with 10 fully transparent and 1 is fully opaque

For example:
Hexadecimal: #1B452C is RGB: 27,69,44,5
(the “,5” indicates the level of transparency)

Ranges from 0 to 1 are translucent (0.9, 0.8,..0.2, 0.1, 0)

27,69,44,0.5 indicates a translucency of 0.5

Root folder
Computers, Websites
Folder set up on your hard drive to hold all the files and pages that make up your website
Running feet
Books, Book Layout
Title, chapter, and/or author information sometimes found at the bottom of each page
For more detail, see running head
Running head
Books, Book Layout
Title, chapter, and/or author information usually found at the top of each page. Besides creating a finished look to book pages, they also:

  • Orient the reader within the book. Any material that takes up more than one page should have a running head. In books with long chapter titles, it’s common to shorten the title to fit on one line along with a page number.
  • Sometimes running heads reflect the content of specific pages by using subheads or other editorial text
  • Often omitted in novels unless specifically used as a design element or as a marketing tool

S

Sales copy, see Jacket copy
Marketing
SAN
Books, Publishing
Standard Address Number
A unique seven-digit identifier used to signify a specific address of an organization that participates in repetitive transactions with other members of the industry (including “U.S. book and journal publishers, booksellers, book wholesalers, subscription agents, jobbers and distributors, printers, binders, compositors and other manufacturing suppliers to the publishing industry, college and university bookstores, libraries, library systems, elementary and secondary schools and school systems” Standard Address Number (SAN) for the Publishing Industry) in order to facilitate communications among them.
Script
Programming, Websites
Programming language which operates inside of a website or page; think of it as a tiny program
First created to take over tedious, repetitive computer tasks
Uses tags in either the or tag of a webpage
There are a lot of scripts possible:

  • JavaScript is very popular; less commonly known as ECMAScript – language
  • Perl – general purpose scripting language and third most popular
  • C, C++ – powerful, complex programming language
  • AppleScript
  • Macros
  • CGI
  • ASP
  • Ruby on Rails
  • Ajax – combination of XML and JavaScript
  • Visual Basic
  • Java – powerful, complex programming language developed by Sun Microsystems
  • .Net
  • PHP – second most popular
  • TCL
  • Rexx
  • Python
  • Coldfusion – language
  • CSS – language
  • HTML, XML, XHTML
Also known as:

  • Applets (Applets have, technically, been replaced by <object> since HTML 4.0)
Selector
CSS, HTML, Websites
There are two parts to CSS code: selectors and declarations
The selector is usually the HTML element you want to style, such as paragraph <p>, lists <ul>/<ol>, tables <table>, headings <h1>, to name just a few.
p { font-size : 1em ;}
selector property : value ;}
declar ation
SEO
Marketing, SEO
Search Engine Optimization
Process by which you perform a number of tasks on each webpage to make that page/your website more inviting to spiders so they are more likely to increase your page rank<
  • Use of meta tags
  • A minimum of 2.5% of each page’s content shuld consist of keywords
  • /dd>

    Server
Computers, Websites
Computer program which responds to users’ requests to see a particular website using http or https
Stored on a computer which may also be referred to as a server
Server-side
Programming, Websites
Code or script which can only function from the web host’s server (if you want to use php, be sure that your web host will allow it)
See also “client-side
Setting
Writing
Where and when the story takes place
It includes location, climate, décor, historical time, social context
Can be used to set a mood
Show it through narrative description, action, dialogue, and/or a character’s thoughts (Virtual Lit)
SFTP
Computers, Websites
Simple File Transfer Protocol
A process by which files are up- or downloaded to the Internet
Less complex than FTP
Short story
Books, Writing
The word count may range from 1,000 for an online literary magazine to 3,500 for print literary magazines on up to 30,000 words
Title is enclosed by quotation marks
Show versus Tell
Writing
Show makes the reader feel a part of the story, enmeshed in it, sympathetic to its characters. The reader will be able to hear the waves lapping up on the white sandy beach; see waves rippling toward the shore, curling up into a mountainous ridge of water before breaking in violence against the jagged rocks, the spray crashing upward before swirling back; smell the buttery crust and cinnamon-apple aroma of a pie fresh out of the oven; shiver from the bitter cold as the wind sweeps in off the lake, driving the storm before it; and, feel how sore a soldier’s feet are from tramping muddy tracks through a countryside of insurgents hiding behind every tree, ready to spray them with gunfire.
Tell writes that the surf crashes on the shore, that Mom has baked an apple pie, that it’s cold and wet outside, that the soldiers’ feet are sore from marching so many miles.
Showrooming
Marketing
A tool for discoverability in which customers go to a physical retail store and then buy online
When books are available as both digital and print, digital sales often decline if there is no visibility in stores. (Obviously this has no effect on self published authors who have no print presence).
SISAC
Books, Publishing
Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI) standard
A bar code based on the ANSI/NIOI Z39.56 that was developed for use in the library community to control check-in and issue receipt for those serials likely to be acquired through subscription by the library and information community. The ISSN is the first element in that code.
.SIT
.SITX
Compression, Computers
Stuff-It compressed file format used with the Mac
A type of file compression software
Social context
Writing
Significant cultural issues that affect a story’s setting
Spam
Computers
Refers to unwanted junk emails, you know, Viagra ads, Ethiopian-Nigerian-? requests to transfer huge amounts of money
Spider
Computers, Internet, Marketing
A.k.a, search engine crawler
Automated program that constantly searches the Internet looking at meta tags, keywords, and, most importantly, page content to use for indexing purposes by search engines such as Google, Bing, Ask, Yahoo, etc.
SSL
Computers, Security
Secure Sockets Layer
Encryption program, which prevents a crook hacking into your session to steal your (or your customers’) personal or financial information
Encryption levels range from 40-bit to 256-bit although most computers are only capable of processing 128-bit encryption
If you want to sell products using your own credit card processing equipment or you collect personal information from clients, you should be using an SSL certificate. All financial institutions and any reputable e-store use SSL certificates.

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Story Arc
Writing
Refers to the chronological construction of plot in a novel or story.
Read more about story arc in the post, “Literary Elements“.

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Story continuity
Writing
The story continues to make sense and follow previously set author rules
For example:

  • In one scene, a character adores chocolate, and in another scene, she hates it
  • A character is John in one scene, and Jon in another
  • Magic works like this, until it suddenly works a different way
  • The kingdom is ruled by an elderly woman who suddenly turns into a young teen
  • Helen’s hair is red in one scene and blonde in the next
It’s reasonable that any of these things switch up, but there must be a reason for it.
Storyboard
Organization, Websites, Writing
A text-and-graphics record of a particular web page
Each storyboard contains:

  • Full text that will appear on that page
  • Link text and the hyperlink address for every link on that page
  • File name of every graphic used on that page
  • Record of the colors and font information
Strict Doctype
HTML, Websites
Describes a type of document recognized by a browser
A more proper term is “standard”
By adhering to the “strict” standard, your website will age more gracefully into newer browser versions with fewer problems now…and then
Style, Voice, Tone, and Language
Writing
All four are connected in creating a story: style is created with language, which creates the voice, which all contributes to tone.
Style can be defined as the way a writer writes, the technique which an individual author uses in their writing. It varies from author to author and depends upon one’s syntax, word choice, and tone.
There are four basic literary styles, which distinguish the work of different authors from one another:

  1. Expository or Argumentative is subject-oriented with the focus on telling the readers about a specific subject or topic and in the end the author leaves out his own opinion about that topic.
  2. Descriptive style finds the author focusing on describing an event, a character or a place in detail. It can be poetic in nature in, where the author specifies an event, an object or a thing rather than merely giving information about an event that has happened. Usually the description incorporates sensory details.
  3. Persuasive aims to persuade and convince the readers to the writer’s point-of-view.
  4. Narrative style finds the writer narrating the story and includes short stories, novels, novellas, biographies and poetry.
Styles go in and out of fashion.
It has also been described as a voice that readers listen to when they read the work of a writer.
Voice is what the narrator sounds like. A young girl, tension-filled, a mother, a bored salesclerk, harsh and judgmental, passionate…
Tone is the attitude created toward the subject matter.
Language conventions used to construct the story include diction, dialogue, dialect, and syntax.
Style sheet
Organization, Websites, Writing
Sets out the standards of writing and design for your story
A set of guidelines that remind authors and editors of spelling preferences for words, names, abbreviations, capitalizations; of formatting issues; grammar choices; punctuation questions; and, more:

  • Which dictionary is referenced
  • How dates and numbers should appear (10 Dec 2013 or December 10, 2013?)
  • Spelling, including British/American differences and how names and places should be spelled throughout (Jon or John?)
  • How specific words should be hyphenated
  • How to handle possessives (Douglas’s or Douglas’?)
  • How references and citations should appear
  • Formatting for headings, tables, figure captions, tables, lists, etc.
  • Dialect
  • Character information
Several organizations put out style guides stating the standards for a particular field or type of writing, which you can use as a reference:

  • The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is popular for non-journalism writers and editors
  • Words Into Type (WIT) by Marjorie E. Skillin for editors
  • Associated Press Stylebook (AP) is used by newspapers
  • You may remember The Elements of Style (Strunk & White) from high school
  • Garner’s Modern American Usage by Bryan A. Garner
  • The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (MLA) is frequently used along with the APA’s Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association in higher education
  • U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual
  • Each profession has a style guide specific to it including doctors, engineers, software programmers, business, political science, etc.
Symbolism
Writing
An image is a sensory impression used to create meaning in a story. For example, near the beginning of Young Goodman Brown, we see Faith, Brown’s wife, “thrust her own pretty head into the street, letting the wind play with the pink ribbons of her cap.” While visual imagery such as this is typically the most prominent in a story, good fiction also includes imagery based on the other senses: sound, smell, touch, and taste.
If an image in a story is used repeatedly and begins to carry multiple layers of meaning, it may be significant enough to call a symbol. Symbols are often objects, like a toy windmill or a rose, or they may be parts of a landscape, like a river — think of the sled in Orson Welles’ Citizen Kane. While a normal image is generally used once, to complete a scene or passage, a symbol is often referred to repeatedly and carries meanings essential to the story. Some symbols are universal, like water for cleansing, but others are more culturally based. In some African societies, for example, a black cat is seen as good luck. Fiction writers use preexisting cultural associations as well as meanings drawn from the context of the story to create multiple levels of meaning. Faith’s pink ribbons in Young Goodman Brown carry cultural connotations of innocence and purity, but the fact that the wind plays with the ribbons in one key image also brings to mind temptation, alluring chaos, the struggle with natural forces. Red is also a significant color in the story’s final temptation scene, with its basin of “water, reddened by the lurid light? Or was it blood?” Faith’s pink ribbons carry, of course, a tinge of red (Virtual Lit).
Involves a range of meanings and interpretations and is not limited to objects or images. They can be events or actions.
Foster includes A Passage to India by E.M. Forster and its “possible assault in the Marabar Caves” with all its possibilities. What do caves mean in Forster’s culture?
Obvious symbols are a white flag even though it doesn’t have a single meaning. It could be I surrender or I come in peace.
See also allegory or image
Syntax
Writing
The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.

T

Tagline
Marketing
A.k.a., tagline, strapline, slogan
Key phrase that identifies your business by capturing the essence of three elements:

  • Your mission
  • Your promise
  • Your brand
Telegraphic Speech
a.k.a., Hulk speech
A style that evolved from the original practice of leaving off words that weren’t necessary to a telegram to save money to the Hollywood idea of Hulk-speak “leav[ing] off the fancy, civilizing stuff — pronouns, conjugations that tell you tidily who is doing what, truncating word endings, articles and other particles that refer to what is and isn’t already known” (A linguist’s guide to HULK SMASH” by James Harbeck in The Week).
Read more about telegraphic speech in the post on “Dialect”.
Text separator
Books, Book Layout
A graphic object which separates text. It may be asterisks, a rule, a graphic image, but it separates sections of text which make a leap from one scene or thought or character to another
Theme
Writing
The meaning or concept we are left with after reading a piece of fiction.
It answers the question, “What did you learn from this?”
May be a prominent element and somewhat unmistakable.
.TIF
.TIFF
Graphics
Tagged Image File Format
File format used for digital images that will be printed
Originally designed so images could be passed around to work with different applications
All popular image editing / e-publishing programs use this format
Internally compressed bitmap
Saves uncompressed using lossless compression
Tends to save as large files; don’t make it smaller
Best for printing onto paper

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Tile
Graphics, Websites
Create a background using the same image multiple times
Think of it as a bathroom wall that’s been tiled with 12" x 12″" tiles
Trade book
Books, Writing
A book published for distribution to the general public through booksellers (American Heritage Dictionary).
Translucent
Graphics
Details are fuzzy
Examples include foggy mirrors, privacy glass
Used as the fourth set of digits, 0 to 1, in RGBA to affect the color
Transparency
Graphics
Also known as a “slide”
Transparent
Graphics
The opposite of opaque/solid
Details are clear
The more easily one can see through a color, the more transparent the color
Used as the fourth set of digits, 1 to 10, in RGBA to affect the color
Trope
Writing
A common or overused theme or device
Cliché
Examples:
Horror Abandoned buildings as per the Friday the 13th movies
Going down into basements as in Home Alone
The Scary Movies with their parodies of horror films
Romance Older stories “required” that the heroine is raped by the “hero” so she can escape the guilt of wanting sex

The arranged marriage that either forces the hero and heroine to work together or causes one of them to run

The girl is always a virgin

The man is tamed by the love of a good woman

Paranormal / Urban Fantasy The fated mate in which the hero and heroine must bond or one or both will die or live forever without ever knowing love and/or sex.There’s the insta-love trope which appears in romances as well in which the hero and heroine see the other and are instantly in love.

The sexual side in which the man always knows how to bring the woman to orgasm — and satisfies her first.

There’s the trope in which he’s a were and she’s a human with the ending changing her to suit him…or vice versa. Or s/he receives immortality as a reward or gift.

Science Fiction Robots

How easy space travel is to accomplish and the distances that are achieved

Existence of ancient races

Time machines

Superpowers and transformations like the Fantastic Four and The Fly

Alien invasions à la H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds

Immortality as epitomized by The Highlander, Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray, and The League of Extraordinary Gentleman

Stupid Don’t tell anyone important information in order to heighten the tension, drama, what have you

Expecting a character to know how to do something because it’s part of their bloodline, race, etc.

The heroine who can’t stay put

I can’t possibly take the time to eat, because, gasp, whatever would we do for drama? (October Daye and Anita Blake)

TrueType
Typography
Created through a collaboration by Apple and Microsoft in response to Adobe requiring font vendors to buy their “hinting” system to create fonts Felici
See also OpenType or PostScript
Typemark
Note which manuscript elements need to be formatted differently from normal text:

  • Note the level, or weight, of each heading
  • Differentiate bulleted lists from numbered lists
  • Tables
  • Chapter numbers
  • References
  • Credit lines
  • Figure captions
  • Any element which must be formatted differently
Performed by a copyeditor
Typeset Copy
Books, Publishing
A typesetter’s proof, i.e., the manuscript laid out by the printer or publisher preparatory to being released
Proofreaders may be asked to comparison proofread a typeset copy against the last edited version of the manuscript

U

Upload
Computers, Websites
Transfer of files to a web host (or web server)
Enables users to access web pages
See also “Download
URI
Computers, Internet
Uniform Resource Identifier
See URL.
In 1998, the Network Working Group merged two earlier Resource for Comment (RFC) documents into the URI. The purpose of this merging is to create “a single, generic syntax for all “URI” making it easier to program browsers to “see” websites.
URL
Computers, Internet, Websites
Uniform Resource Locator
Originally, web addresses were a string of numbers (IP addresses) which had to be typed in. The string proved too difficult for people to accurately and consistently enter so the concept of using actual words was introduced
An URL, does two things:

  • Identify a website
  • Provide the address so you can locate the website
A relative URL ignores the domain name and begins /folder/fileName.xxx
There are two reasons why a relative URL is used:

  • Reduces typing errors if you don’t have to type out the entire domain name
  • Saves space
There are several reasons why this is a bad idea:

  • Increases the chances of a bad link so people can’t get to a different part of your website
  • It's a good habit to write the full domain name out in case people print your page out as it acts like a tiny bit of marketing for that person to find you again
An absolute URL includes the entire address, http://www.yourwebsitename.com/folder/filename.xxx
There are two reasons why an absolute URL is used:

  • Enables more people to access all the pages of your website by decreasing the chances of a bad, or broken, link
  • it's a good habit to write the full domain name out in case people print your page out as it acts like a tiny bit of marketing for that person to find you again
There are several reasons why this is a bad idea:

  • Increases typing errors when you type out the entire domain name
  • Takes up space

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User agent
Computers, Internet
A.k.a., UA
Application that processes a web page, such as a browser, some assistive technology, or a search engine Olsson
Sometimes used to refer to both ends of a communications session, in norm-terms, when my computer talks to your computer or another server
On the Internet, UAs are web browsers (Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, etc.), search engine crawlers (spiders), bots, mobile phones, screen readers, braille browsers, etc.
UAs usually “identify themselves by their application type, operating system, software vendor, or software revision by submitting a characteristic identification string to its operating peer. In the HTTP and SIP protocols, this is transmitted in [the] header field, User Agent” (User agent).
UTF-8
HTML, Websites
A character-encoding protocol which tells the Internet and mail programs how to interpret the letters, numbers, and symbols used on a website or in an email message
Backwards-compatible with ASCII
UTM Code
Computer, Marketing
A.k.a., UTM parameters
Little snippets of text added to the end of your URL to help you track the success of your content on the web.
An example of UTM codes is highlighted in the URL below in orange:

http://blog.hubspot.com/9-reasons-you-cant-resist-list?utm_campaign=blogpost &utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook

Used in marketing
Can group what your tracking by including:

  • Campaign: Groups all of the content from one campaign in your analytics.
    • Ex: utm_campaign=20percentpromocode
  • Source: Which website is sending you traffic.
    • Ex: utm_source=Facebook
  • Medium: The type of marketing medium that the link is featured in.
    • Ex: utm_medium=socialmedia
  • Content: Used to track the different types of content that point to the same URL from the same campaign, source, and medium codes. Often used in PPC or with two identical links on the same page.
    • Ex: utm_content=sidebarlink or utm_content=headerlink
  • Term: Used to identify the keywords you’ve paid for in a PPC ad.
    • Ex: utm_term=marketing+software

(Ginny Soskey)

V

Validate
CSS, HTML, Websites
Checking the HTML and/or CSS code for errors
Errors in the code create problems for the layout and the viewer
The W3C is one of many services on the Internet providing validation for CSS and HTML
Vector graphics
Graphics
Also known as “object-oriented graphics”
Used by draw programs, CADD systems, animation software such as:

  • Adobe Illustrator, Flash, Fireworks, Acrobat
Uses math to represent the images
When resized or restretched, the image retains its resolution
Ideal to use for text
Looks better on monitors and printers
Can be imported into Photoshop which will convert it into a bitmap
Viewport
Computers
Browser window, computer monitor, cellphone screen

W

WebDAV
Websites, Writing
Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning
Allows reading AND writing to a Web page

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Web editor
Websites, Writing
Software program that eases the coding of web pages
Popular programs include TinyMCE (preferred by WordPress), CoffeeCup HTML Editor, and MacRabbit’s Espresso (Macs only)
WordPress allows you to use a visual post editor, which means you don’t need to know CSS or HTML code.
Web host
Websites
Also referred to as a “web server”
A “host” is a company which has a lot of space in a particular type of computer hard drive that you rent by the month (or year)
How much rent you pay depends upon how much space you need to hold the pages of your website, how many users access your site monthly, if you need CGI or php capability, if you want email addresses which relate to your website, etc.
Whitespace
Typography, Graphics
A.k.a., white space, empty space, negative space, breathing room
Not necessarily “white” space
Refers to the blank areas of the “page”
Used to separate or unite elements on a page
WWW
Computers, Internet, Websites
World Wide Web, the Web for short
Indicates the primary host name for the location of your web site
Today’s Web and its http:// standard was created by Tim Berners-Lee at the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1989. The World Wide Web was released in 1992.

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WYSIWYG
Computers
What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get
Creating content that looks the same as what others will see
In the beginning, there were 1’s and 0’s, binary programming…today, you can “draw a box” and fill it with text or pictures

X

x-coordinate
CSS, HTML, Websites
Horizontal line
From left to right
Used in positioning graphics

Y

y-coordinate
CSS, HTML, Websites
Vertical line
From top to bottom
Used in positioning graphics
Young Adult
An age range to which an author writes.
In this case, adolescents ranging from 12 to 18 years of age with the subject matter and storyline consistent within that age and experience using a protagonist within the same age range.

Z

.ZIP
Compression, Computers
WinZip compressed file format
Used with Windows
A type of file compression software
To upload a plugin for WordPress, you must compress the file first.

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