Glossary of Terms for
Art, Books, Computers, Therapy, Writing

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Your best source for taking the confusion out of technical terms — from KD Did It. This glossary of computer, art, and therapy terminology is designed to give artists a quick definition — and examples of HTML/CSS code as well as links where you can find more information.

If you’re looking for a computer or art term that is not listed in the Glossary of Terms Relating to Art, Computers, Therapy ++, please email Kathy.

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A

Accessibility
Disability Access, Legal
Required for users who are disabled in some way and are not able to use a website easily or at all
Some of the considerations a website designer must consider includes:
  • Include alt=... text and labels so that screenreading software can voice information for a seeing-impaired person
  • Provide a good color contrast
    • One example is color blindness which is experienced by some 5-20% of men and less than 1% of women
    • There is a website, Colorblind Web Page Filter, which will test your page for its contrast effectiveness
  • Make your text size big enough — and don’t make your smallest font size too small!
  • Enable flexible sizing of your font size
  • Provide information using links or labels for acronyms and abbreviations
  • Create intuitive navigation making it simple for users to move around in the website
Active Voice
Writing
The opposite of active voice is passive voice
Define
Give examples
Address
Computers
Path that a browser or computer follows to find a file
For example:
  • A computer file address might read:
    • On a PC: ..\MyDocuments\MyWebs\kddidit\images\originals\bkgrdNavFooter.jpg, or
    • On a Mac: HD:Users:kathydavie:Documents:MyWebs:kdDidIt:
              images:originals:bkgrdNavFooter.jpg
  • A web address might read: http://www.w3.org/
    • If any part of this path is wrong, the file will not be found
Afterword
Writing
Written by someone other than the author of the book, generally as an ending, commentary, or some sort of final comments (Live Write Thrive)
.AI
Computers, Graphics, Typography
Adobe Illustrator image file
Uses vector graphics
Alternate Universe is explored in more detail under Science Fiction
Allegory
An allegory is a work of fiction in which the symbols, characters, and events come to represent, in a somewhat point-by-point fashion, a different metaphysical, political, or social situation. In Western culture, allegories have often been used for instructive purposes around Christian themes. For example, in John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, a protagonist named Christian goes on a journey in which he encounters complicating characters and situations such as Mr. Worldly Wiseman, Vanity Fair, and the Slough of Despair, thus depicting the struggles of a Christian trying to stay pure. In some ways Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Young Goodman Brown is structured as an allegory, as is evident in the character Faith, the Devil offering his snake-like staff, the temptation scene, and so on. Hawthorne skillfully manipulates the conventions of allegory, however, to resist a fixed meaning and create an ending that is open to interpretation (Virtual Lit).
Foster states that an allegory can evolve from a symbol once it is “reduced to standing for only one thing” with but one mission to accomplish. It must be clear. He cites George Orwell’s Animal Farm as an allegory that is simple to figure out (Foster, pp 105).
See also image or symbolism
Anthology
Books
A grouping of short stories in one book:
  • Various authors
  • Selected writings
    • Same literary form, OR
    • Of the same period, OR
    • On the same subject
Compare it against collection and omnibus under Short Stories
Approach format
Art
How a gallery/museum/alternative space prefers an artist new to them to contact them about an exhibition or seeking a space to show their work
ARC
Writing
Advanced reader copy
ARCs are printed or e-versions of your book that are given away for free to reviewers, bloggers, distributors, retail buyers, and other industry contacts
Think of it as a product sample
Archival
Art
Methods using acid-free supplies to preserve art and images
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Assistive technology
Computers, Disability Access, Legal
Alternative methods for accessing and using the Internet
Depending upon the disability, people may use speech output, Braille displays or screen magnification, keyboard navigation versus the use of a mouse, voice-driven systems to access the Web, voice recognition for spoken commands, or the use of switch devices which can be controlled by head, mouth or eye movements.
Attribute
HTML, Websites
Label for HTML coding
Defines properties used to create a web page, see element
Only included in a start tag, <; never an end tag, /x>

You’ll know it’s an attribute when you see <a name=... id=...> (part of an anchor tag)

For example:
<img src="
../images/imageFromFile.gif
" alt="
This image is from my file
" />

src and alt are attribute tags

..images/imageFromFile.gif is the address for the image while This image is…file is an alt tag explaining what the image is about in case, for some reason, the picture does not appear on the user’s monitor

B

Backlist
Books, Marketing, Publishing
All the books published over the years by a publishing company that have found a permanent audience, no matter how small. The best backlist books have a permanent spot on bookstore shelves, which whenever the store runs out of them, the same book gets re-ordered (Joel Friedlander).
Backlist, social media
Books, Marketing
This is about a blog’s article archives and includes foundation content, evergreen articles, process overviews, resource directories, and best practices (Joel Friedlander)
Although blog articles don’t have to prove themselves in the market the same way a book does, they have some of the same characteristics of great backlist books. Some kinds of articles that fall into this category include:
  1. Foundation content: articles that explain basic concepts will be in demand as long as those concepts are relevant to your readers
    • Word Confusions, definitions, grammar, Track Changes
  2. Evergreen articles: software changes constantly, but general principles rarely change, and people always want to understand them
    • Checklists for authors to have
  3. Process overviews: quick-reference summaries of basic processes in your field are great to orient new readers to your topic
    • Track changes??
  4. Resource directories: readers will always need tips on where to find tools, vendors, and other necessities
  5. Best practices: whittling down the number of choices beginners face to just a few appropriate options will be helpful to many people
    • Being consistent
    • Making your own checklist of words to pay attention to
Bar code
Books, Marketing, Publishing
A bar code is the graphic with vertical lines that encodes numerical information for scanning purposes. It’s used by warehouses to track their shipments and inventory as well as by the bookstore when selling your book to a buyer.
The U.S. standard is the EAN Bookland barcode using an Encapsulated PostScript Format (EPS) graphic image. Check out Joel Friedlander’s post on “Self-Publishing Basics: Deciphering the Bookland EAN Bar Code“. It’s funny and informative.
You must have an ISBN before you can get a barcode and if you are planning to add the MSRP (manufacturer’s (you) suggested retail price), you MUST be firm about the price at which you want to sell your story (you can always put it on sale at a discount!). You can skip adding the price, and then you won’t have to buy another barcode if you decide to change the price later.
Barcodes can be purchased through a variety of sources: your book designer, printing company, MyIdentifiers (a Bowker unit; stores it in your account and can be downloaded from there), or your own source.
Once a barcode is made, it cannot be revised. If you want to change the price of an item, you must purchase a new bar code. However, you can use the same ISBN as long as the product and price have not changed.M
Bitmap graphics
Graphics
Also known as raster graphics
Used by paint programs
Not easily scalable; can look fuzzy
Uses dots to compose the image (see resolution)
.BMP
Graphics
Bitmap
File format used for digital images
One bit per pixel
Uncompressed (saves as huge files)
Bookplate
Books, Marketing
A.k.a., ex libris, meaning from the library of
Placed inside the front cover of a book to denote the owner
Bot
Computers, Internet
A.k.a., robot

A program used on the Internet to perform mindless, automated tasks such as web crawling, searching for people’s email addresses so they can send spam to them

Usually includes its URL and/or an email address so the bot’s operator can be found by a webmaster
A benign example is a spider which reads pages on websites and indexes the words used on that website. These words become keywords.
Bounce rates, hard or soft
Marketing
Email marketing metrics
A bounce is when an email can’t be delivered:
  • Hard – can’t be delivered for permanent reasons, such as it’s a fake address, the email domain isn’t real, the recipient’s server won’t accept emails. Remove this email from your address list to retain your sender reputation.
  • Soft – can’t be delivered for temporary reasons, such as a full inbox, email file is too big, etc. If that address keeps popping up for several days that it can’t be delivered, delete it.
It’s important “try to keep your total bounce rate under 2% — much higher than that, and you’ll start noticing some deliverability issues (HubSpot).
Broadside
Original term for a landscape-oriented page
Browser
Computers, Internet
A software program which enables you to access the Internet
Some of the more popular browsers include Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, Mozilla’s Firefox, Apple's Safari, and Opera.
They are all free
Burnish
Art
Rubbing or polishing with a tool to:
  • Make a surface smooth
  • Turn an edge and flatten it
  • Transfer a product onto a surface
  • Make a surface shiny or lustrous

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Button States
CSS, HTML, Websites
Refers to the appearance of a button link on a website
A button may have up to four different looks depending on:
  • if it is a link
  • if it has been "pushed" by clicking with a mouse
  • if it has used to indicate the user's location in the website, or
  • if it has previously been clicked by the user
Different programs and/or web designers use different terms to refer to the same states:


Adobe Dreamweaver uses:
Down Button appears to have been pressed
Out, a.k.a., up Appears when page is first loaded
Off Button does not function
Over, a.k.a., on or hover Changes appearance when a viewer moves his/her mouse over it
Over While Down Allows the button to look pressed and still change its appearance when the viewer hovers over it
Adobe Flash uses:
Up Appearance of the button when the mouse is not over it
Over, a.k.a., hover
Down Button's appearance when the viewer clicks on it
Hit Defines the area that will respond to a mouse click

  • Without a hit area, the viewer must click on the actual letter in the text

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C

Call-to-action
Marketing
CTA
Encouraging viewers and potential buyers to follow through and spend their money or sign up for something by using text and links
Converting leads into sales
Typical language includes register, download, subscribe, enroll, buy, get, follow, share, update, tweet, sign up, start, contact, watch, etc.
Camera-ready artwork
Graphics
Crisp, black-and-white printout of desired image
Image must be saved as:
  • If using Adobe Illustrator:
    • Save as either an EPS or an AI file
  • If using Adobe Photoshop:
    • Save with an EPS file extension
    • Only as a 4-color graphic process
    • Use CMYK color format
    • Type must be in vector format
  • At the desired, final size
  • Convert all text and graphics to outlines or paths
CAPTCHA
Computers, Internet, Security
Small box of really weird text that a user has to type into to prove that s/he is a human so the site can avoid spam bots, etc. You can’t provide a text alternative as it would make the CAPTCHA accessible to a spam bot so you need text that describes the purpose of the CAPTCHA and [provide] alternate forms usng different modalities…to address the needs of people with different disabilities (Non-Text).
.CDR
Graphics
File format used by CorelDRAW, a digital image processing software program
File format used for digital images
Good software program but rarely used due to the difficulty in sharing its files across software programs
Certificate authority
Computers, Security, Websites
Company authorized to provide digital signatures
  • VeriSign is considered a very reliable and reputable source
CGI
Programming, Viewer Interaction, Websites
Computer Graphic Interface
Requires server-side interaction
Character development
Writing
Two primary characters exist in every fictional story: the protagonist and the antagonist
  • Protagonist is the hero/heroine, the story’s main character
  • Antagonist is the anti-hero, the character or force in conflict with the protagonist
Main characters need to be well-rounded, complex and fully developed with the capacity to change; ideally, they engage the reader (Virtual Lit)
Character arc
Writing
Character growth or change
The internal change that a character undergoes over the course of a story is called the character arc. At the beginning, he views himself and the world one way, but through growth and inner transformation, he comes to view his life on a deeper, more meaningful level. – Becca Puglisi
Chick Lit
It’s a shorthand for chick literature, meaning a book genre which addresses issues of modern womanhood, often humorously and lightheartedly (Wikipedia).

Child
CSS, HTML, Websites
Relates to classes assigned to selectors in CSS coding
In CSS, it is possible to create classes, sub-categories of a selector such as ul.footer. The selector is ul and the child class is .footer (I generally use ul.footer to set up my footer menu).
Using a child/class, allows you to change only those property:values of the parent selector that you choose.
selector
ul.footer { font-size : 0.85em;}
parent . child property value
declar ation
Children
The age ranges for children vary even more than for teens and are more dependent upon the individual child’s reading development level. Ideally, a reader shouldn’t read too much into the age range but explore books outside the indicated age ranges for their child. That said, the age ranges noted below are a useful general guide.
  • Babies & Toddlers – 0–2
  • Ages 3–25
  • Ages 6–29
  • Middle grade – 8–212
Young Adult is the next age range up.
Class
CSS, HTML, Websites
A.k.a., child
Label for CSS coding which modifies a selector
Client-side
Programming, Websites
Code or script which does not require the web host’s server
Uses the viewer’s computer to chat back and forth
See also server-side

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CMYK
Graphics, Print
Cyan-magenta-yellow-black
Subtractive color model
A color process used for your printed images
Use for images you intend to print
Code point
HTML, Publishing, Websites
A.k.a., character code
A grouping of letters and characters used to represent a particular symbol or accented letter
For example (spaces are inserted to prevent the browser from showing the character it represents):
  • & a m p ; is the code point for &
  • & q u o t ; is the code point for "
The & and the ; enclose the group; it tells the browser this is a code from the UTF-8
Code points also can recreate diacritic marks on the Internet and in eBooks, e.g., é or Ö
Collection
Books, Publishing
A grouping of short stories in one book:
  • Same author
  • Reprinted works of various themes
Compare it against anthology and omnibus under Short Stories
Collections of short stories
Books, Publishing
The proper name for a book of short stories will depend on whether a similar theme is used and whether the same or different authors have written the stories
  • Anthology
    • Various authors
    • Selected writings
      • Same literary form, OR
      • Of the same period, OR
      • On the same subject
  • Collection
    • Same author
    • Reprinted works of various themes
  • Omnibus
    • Same author
    • Reprinted works related in interest or theme
Cookies
Computers, Internet
Cookies are textual information about you that is sent to you by a web server. This information is sent back and forth between you and the server and is used to track your preferences, contents of your shopping cart, know which part of a class or session you should be in, authenticate that you are who you say you are, etc.
A cookie is not a virus but it can be used as spyware. Browser mechanisms are usually set to read cookies, and, while mostly benign, they can be used as spyware. Anti-spyware products may warn users about some cookies because cookies can be used to track people or violate privacy concerns (Wikipedia).
CPL
Typography, Websites
Characters per line
There is an optimum number of characters or words beyond which it becomes more difficult for readers to follow the line of text, a.k.a., readability
Naturally, experts differ on the ideal CPL, but the range appears to be from 50 to 75 CPL
Use Chris Pearson’s Golden Ratio Typography Calculator to determine the ideal content width, font-size, and line-height.
You can increase the readability by increasing the font-size and line-height.
CSS
CSS, Websites
Cascading StyleSheet
Tells the browser:
  • Where to position graphics, text, and all other page parts on a web page
  • What colors to use for everything
  • The sizes of the individual parts of the page
  • Where to find graphics to use on the web page
  • And more, oh, so much more!
Uses external, internal, and inline stylesheets
Benefits of using CSS include:
  • Ability to create a single external stylesheet from which changes are made to a single file which affect all the pages on a website (see also external CSS link
  • Enables faster loading of individual web pages because the browser only has to load the one stylesheet
  • Ability to create specific stylesheets to permit an efficient printing of specific parts of web pages

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D

Declaration
CSS, HTML, Websites
Label for the property:value portion of the CSS element code
p { font-size : 1em ;}
selector { property : value ;}
declar ation
Deprecated
CSS, HTML, Websites
An element or attribute that has become updated and may become obsolete with future updated browsers.
As future browser versions are released, there is less and less support for deprecated elements which means parts of your website won’t work.
Detail shot
Art, Graphics
Close-up image of a small, interesting detail of an individual art piece
Diacritic marks
Editing, Writing
Diacritic marks are the accents, graves, cedillas, umlauts, over dots, under dots, and more that can be found on all sorts of letters. I’ve got a few of the basics memorized, but there are many that I rarely encounter or are impossible to find, so I’ve made up my own collection — that keeps getting added to!
Examples include déjà, café, résumé, Françoise, bitte schön, Sûreté
If you find a need for an obscure diacritic, visit Chart of Diacritical Marks on KD Did It.
Dialect
Writing
xx
Dialog
Writing
xx
Diction
Writing
Author’s choice of words
iction
In analyzing fiction, the first thing that the reader should consider is the writer’s use of diction. Diction refers to the words that the writer chooses to use in his or her writing. For example, a story about an inner-city teenager may include profanity or vulgarity. This type of diction might be used in order to create a sense of realism by capturing how a specific character might actually talk and interact with other people. To produce a very different effect, the same kind of story may also be told using formal language that would reflect a more distanced, or omniscient perspective.
Effects of Diction
When analyzing diction, the reader should consider the effect of a writer’s choice of words. A story that relies on formal language may do so to establish a kind of separation between the narrator and the chacters. The writer may not be concerned with relaying realism and authenticity, but may instead want to clearly present a message about life in the inner city using methods such as third person omniscient point of view. Other types of diction that the writer may use and that the reader should consider in analyzing his or her style are obscenities, contractions, conversational and colloquial language, and formal, educated and informal language choices.
Download
Computers, Websites
Transfer files, images, words, programs, etc. from the Internet to your computer
Also see Upload
dpi
Graphics, Typography
Dots per inch
Measure of the printer’s density of dot (e.g. ink droplet) placement

E

Element
CSS, HTML, Websites
In CSS, selectors, the chunks of code you create, are elements.
In HTML, an element consists of a start tag, content, and an end tag — styling an element: paragraph <p>, lists <ul>/<ol>, tables <table>, headings <h1>, to name just a few.
<p> Then the content slips in here. </p>
<td> Then the content slips in here. </td>
<Start tag> Content (your contribution) </End tag>
Embedding
CSS, HTML, Websites
Now deprecated in HTML 4.0 and replaced by <object>
However, it’s not yet fully supported by all browsers (as of June 2010)
Epigraph
Book Layout, Writing
Short quotation at the start of a chapter or a section
Regarding fair use of musical lyrics, consult the It is up to the song’s publisher the actual songwriter to defend and protect those rights
Regarding fair use of poetry in an epigraph, consult the Poetry Foundation. Be sure to include a credit to the poet and the poem’s title.
Epilogue
Writing
C.S. Lakin at Live Write Thrive provides a great definition: “summarizes and reflects on the story as a whole. It isn’t the ‘ending’ of the novel’s plot. A true epilogue will feel different from the rest of the novel, and may be presented as if years later, with a character reflecting back on the whole story or telling how things turned out for all the players. The kind of thing we see often in plays, where a character sums everything up (think The Tempest or A Midsummer Night’s Dream)” (Live Write Thrive).
.EPS
Graphics
Encapsulated Postscript Format
File format used for digital images
Used to store vector images so applications that work with Postscript can read or edit them
More closely related to TIF documents
Ex libris
Books, Marketing
See Bookplate
External CSS link
CSS, HTML, Websites
Code inserted inside the <head> tag of a web page
<link type=
“text/css”
rel=
“stylesheet”
href=
“CSS/styles.css”>

Causes the CSS stylesheet to communicate with that HTML page

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F

Fair Use
Copyright, Graphics, Quotes, Text, Writing
Section 107 also sets out four factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use is fair:
  1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes
  2. The nature of the copyrighted work
  3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
  4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work
  5. The distinction between what is fair use and what is infringement in a particular case will not always be clear or easily defined
There is no specific number of words, lines, or notes that may safely be taken without permission.
Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission (Library of Congress: Fair Use).
Fantasy
A book or series genre that “uses magic and other supernatural phenomena as a primary plot element, theme, or setting such as an imaginary world where magic and magical creatures are common”, including myths and legends (Wikipedia).
  • Urban Fantasy, as a
    Joanna Penn has written a useful post, “Writing Fiction. What Is Urban Fantasy Anyway?” that defines urban fantasy as one in which “magic and weird stuff creeping in at the edges of a world in which magic is not the norm. Everything appears normal until you walk down a particular alleyway after midnight on the third Tuesday of the month. The person sitting opposite you on the underground train looks normal but is in fact looking for a particular flavour of grief to steal and bottle up to take back to his master. The majority of the people who live there will have normal lives, oblivious to the magical all around them, hidden in plain sight”. Romance will simply be one of many threads within the storyline.
    As a series genre, I define it as one which follows the same primary character in each installment in a series — Laurell K. Hamilton’s Anita Blake, Vampire Hunter, Diana Rowland’s Kara Gillian, and Alex Archer’s Rogue Angel, Patricia Briggs’ Mercy Thompson are good examples.
    Series which are a blend of urban fantasy and another genre(s) include Seana McGuire’s October Daye
Faux column
CSS, HTML, Websites
Tiling does not work in a confined section of a webpage so if you are using a particular image or color in a sidebar and that sidebar’s height varies depending on a page’s contents, you want to use a faux column effect
A good example is the sidebars on this glossary page versus the sidebars on the Home page
File
Computers
In computerese, a file is a document, image, graph, webpage, etc. that is saved on a computer
In this instance, a file is the webpage you saved under your root folder, or an image you saved under your images folder, or…
File compression
Compression, Computers, Graphics
Used primarily for graphic images. Graphic images can be so big that they cannot be sent via email. By using a file compression format, you can squeeze the file into a smaller size.
In Adobe Photoshop, a graphic file can be compressed by choosing File > Save for Web & Devices
Macintosh and Windows use a variety of different file compression programs. The most popular are:
  • StuffIt Expander (Macintosh)
  • WinZip (Windows)
File extension
Computers
3- or 4-letters that follow a computer file name, for example:
  • .doc / .pdf / .tif / .jpg
    • My story.doc
    • dog.bmp
  • .jpeg / .tiff / .html
Useful for the user as it indicates the software program used to save the file
ALWAYS preceded by a period

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Folder
Computers, Organization
A folder is capable of holding multiple file(s)
It can also hold multiple folders
Ideal for organizing the hard drive on your computer
A root folder is another type of folder
Forward(ing)
Websites
A service provided by the company which registers your domain name
The registering company may provide a hosting service which you choose not to use so when a user types in your web address, their inquiry must be forwarded to where your web site is being hosted
Foreword
Writing
Written by someone other than the author of the book, generally as an introduction, commentary, or some sort of prefatory comments (Live Write Thrive)
FTP
Websites
File Transfer Protocol
A process by which files are up- or downloaded to the Internet
See also SFTP
Function
Programming, Websites
Separate, small program that performs a few actions
When used with JavaScript, it keep[s] the browser from executing a script when the page loads W3C.
Best placed in the <head> section

G

Galley
Editing, Publishing
See ARC
Genre
A genre is a category of literature, characterized by similarities in form, style, or subject matter.
Genres include:
  • Science Fiction
  • Suspense
  • Thriller
  • .GIF
    Graphics
    Graphics Interchange Format
    File format used for digital images
    Designed to compress images to make them as small as possible using lossless compression
    Internally compressed bitmap
    Best for Internet use where quality is not an issue and you need a small file size

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    Global changes
    Programming, Websites
    Change information in one file and it applies that change to every page in the website when you save and upload that file to your website
    Glossies
    Graphics
    Shiny-surfaced, smooth photographic print
    Generally refers to an 8" x 10" size
    Usually in black-and-white
    Usually requested by newspapers, magazines, and art festivals

    H

    Hack
    Programming, Websites
    A.k.a., work-around
    A bit of code written to fix a specific problem in a version of a browser
    Hard code
    HTML, Websites
    Many web editors provide shortcut options to create links — DO NOT trust them
    These types of links always break or they create a link to the file on your computer
    You want links which connect to your UPloaded files:
    • NOT ...My Documents\websites\kddidit.com\howICanHelp.html (a link to a file on your computer)
    • NOT ..howICanHelp.html (shortcut; always breaks)
    • YES http://kddidit.com/howICanHelp.html (a link to a page on the Internet)

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    Hard drive
    Computers
    Generically used to refer to the box that holds the CD/DVD drive, memory, fans, etc. into which you plug all the peripherals used with a computer such as a printer, scanner, monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, etc.
    A.k.a., the computer
    Specifically refers to a small piece of hardware installed inside the computer that acts as the storage unit holding your software, drivers, files, and folders.
    Horizontal rule
    CSS, HTML, Websites
    Horizontal line that spans all or part of a page acting as a divider
    HTML code to insert a horizontal line is <hr color=#xxxxxx>
    Horror
    A book or series genre that creates a sense of fear, panic, alarm, and dread in the reader through a portrayal of their worst fears and nightmares. The plot usually centers on the arrival of an evil force, person, or event and includes a large amount of violence and gore in the storyline. Horror may focus on non-supernatural or the supernatural.

    I

    Icon
    Computers, Graphics, Marketing, Typography
    Small image that takes the place of text and is meant to catch the eye
    Can represent an action, a program, or device on a computer operating system
    Identifier
    Books, Publishing
    Recognizes a book as unique using ISBNs, SANs, and barcodes
    Image
    As it relates to symbols and allegory
    An image is a sensory impression used to create meaning in a story. For example, near the beginning of “Young Goodman Brown,” we see Faith, Brown’s wife, “thrust her own pretty head into the street, letting the wind play with the pink ribbons of her cap.” While visual imagery such as this is typically the most prominent in a story, good fiction also includes imagery based on the other senses: sound, smell, touch, and taste (Virtual Lit).
    • Visual = sight
    • Aural = sound, e.g., the soft hiss of skis
    • Olfactory = smell, e.g., the smell of spilled beer, frying onions, popcorn in a movie theater
    • Tactile = touch, e.g., bare feet on a hot sidewalk, the softness of velvet,
    • Gustatory = taste, e.g., the bland taste of starchy bananas
    See also allegory or symbolism
    Image editing software
    Graphics
    Enables you to adjust the size, brightness, content, color, angle, contrast, resolution, etc. of an image to varying degrees
    Examples include:
    • Adobe Photoshop
    • Windows’ Paint
    • Apple’s iPhoto
    Image organizing software
    Graphics, Organization
    Enables you to better control how much computer memory is used to store images
    Instead of saving multiple copies of the same image in different folders, organizing software uses keywords, (also known as indexing)
    • Keywords are used to sort the images into albums (iPhoto) or folders (Photo Gallery)
    • The original images are kept intact and will always be available through iPhoto or Photo Gallery

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    Internally compressed bitmap
    Computers, Graphics
    Compression is a method of storing data in less space by squeezing it
    Internet
    Computers, Internet
    A.k.a., the World Wide Web, www, the ‘net
    iPhoto
    Computers, Graphics, Organization
    Image manipulation/editing and organizing software program available through iLife on a Macintosh computer
    ISBN
    Books, Publishing
    International Standard Book Number
    Bowker is the U.S. distributor of ISBNs
    Each version of a book in each format — hardcover, paperback, audio, MOBI, PDF, and ePUB needs its own ISBN and acts as an ordering number. Bowker provides a list of what does not require an ISBN.
    Its purpose is to establish and identify one title or edition of a title, in a specific format, from one specific publisher and helps your book be discovered more easily (Bowker).
    Purchasing an ISBN through an agency other than Bowker means that they are your publisher.
    ISSN
    Books, Publishing
    International Standard Serial Number
    It’s assigned to serials: magazines, periodicals, newsletters, newspapers, journals, magazines, annuals) whether published in print, online, or other media (such as CD, DVD, etc.) with each medium version assigned a separate ISSN (U.S. ISSN Center).
    Free and available from the Library of Congress (LOC) by filling out a form and including the required sample.
    The LOC service does NOT include a barcode.

    J

    Jacket copy
    Marketing, Writing
    a.k.a., sales copy
    Information that appears on the back of your book and includes the book description, an author bio, endorsements, etc.
    .JPG
    .JPEG
    Graphics
    Joint Photographic Experts Group
    File format used for digital images
    Used extensively for photos used or sent on the Internet / continuous tone images
    Very popular with Web designers
    Internally compressed bitmap
    Uses lossy compression

    K

    Keyword
    Marketing, SEO
    Carefully chosen words which are specific to a topic or website
    From a viewer’s standpoint, keywords are those words or phrases used when doing a search on a particular topic or for a particular type of website
    Indexed by bots and used to help direct searchers to the desired website(s)

    L

    LCC
    Books, Publishing
    Library of Congress Control Number
    Different from a copyright registration number. The Cataloging in Publication (CIP) Division of the Library of Congress is responsible for assigning LC Control Numbers and is operationally separate from the Copyright Office. A book may be registered in or deposited with the Copyright Office but not necessarily cataloged and added to the Library’s collections.
    For information about obtaining an LC Control Number, see the following website: http://www.loc.gov/publish/pcn/. For information on International Standard Book Numbering (ISBN), write to: ISBN, R.R. Bowker, 630 Central Ave., New Providence, NJ 07974. Call (800) 269-5372. For further information and to apply online, see www.isbn.org. For information on International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN), write to: Library of Congress, National Serials Data Program, Serial Record Division, Washington, DC 20540-4160. Call (202) 707-6452. Or obtain information from www.loc.gov/issn.
    Link
    HTML, Internet, Websites
    Also known as a hyperlink
    Uses an HTML code to create an address which, when clicked, connects the viewer to other web pages

    <a href="http://www.yoursite.com>
    Your Site
    <a>

    If the desired link is to an external website, it’s usually best to have it open into a new window. Add target="_blank" to the <a> address

    <a href="http://www.yoursite.com/target="_blank">
    Someone Else’s Site<a>

    There are three states for coding a link in CSS:

    • Unvisited – an unclicked link
      • Uses some version of a brightish blue color
      • Represented as a in CSS
        • a:link adds a special style to an unvisited link (W3C)
    • Visited – a link that has been clicked
      • Helps the viewer know when s/he has already clicked that link
      • Uses some version of a purple color
      • Represented as a:visited in CSS
    • Hover – appearance of a link when a viewer’s mouse is stationary over it
      • Confirms to the viewer that it is a link
      • Color is your choice
      • Represented as a:hover in CSS
    • Active – indicates a change in the link text when the viewer hovers over a link that s/he has not yet clicked
      • Color and decoration is your choice
      • Represented as a:active in CSS

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    Literature
    A book genre similar to fiction, literature is generally better written or with loftier goals in mind
    Local/Network
    Computers, Internet, Websites
    A type of protocol used to upload pages to the Internet
    Generally refers to an internal website accessible only for company employees or the occupants of a house
    Lossless data compression
    Compression, Graphics
    Type of digital image compression
    A.k.a., lossless compression
    No data information is lost when it is compressed
    Lossy data compression
    Compression, Graphics
    Type of digital image compression
    A.k.a., lossy compression
    Some data information is deleted or lost forever

    M

    Marketing, inbound
    Marketing
    Creating value that helps your subscriber at different stages of a subscriber’s lifecycle and sharing it with the “world”, i.e., the Internet
    • Personalize the message to the subscriber as you learn more about potential clients/readers
    • Figure out which social media channels your subscribers use to respond to you
    • Use publishing and analytic tools together, so you can focus on posting the right content in the right place at the right time
    Four ways to market:
    • Attract the people who are most likely to want what you’re selling by using:
      • Blogs – create content that grabs their attention and answers their questions
      • Social Media – spread the word of what you’re saying on your blog, talk to them, let them know you’re a real person. Spend time on the social media where your ideal buyers spend their time.
      • Keywords – Find out what words and phrases your customers use “on a search engine to find something they have questions about. You need to make sure you’re appearing prominently when they search. To get there, you need to carefully, analytically pick keywords, optimize your pages, create content, and build links around the terms your ideal buyers are searching for.”
      • “Pages – You must optimize your website to appeal to and speak with your ideal buyers. Transform your website into a beacon of helpful content to entice the right strangers to visit your pages.”
    • Convert
      Once you’ve got visitors to your site, the next step is to convert those visitors into leads by gathering their contact information. At the very least, you’ll need their email addresses. Contact information is the most valuable currency there is to the online marketer. In order for your visitors to offer up that currency willingly, you need to offer them something in return. That “payment” comes in the form of content, like ebooks, whitepapers, or tip sheets — whatever information would be interesting and valuable to each of your personas.

      Some of the most important tools in converting visitors to leads include:

      Calls-to-Action- Calls-to-action are buttons or links that encourage your visitors to take action, like “Download a Whitepaper” or “Attend a Webinar.” If you don’t have enough calls-to-action or your calls-to-action aren’t enticing enough, you won’t generate any leads.

      Landing Pages- When a website visitor clicks on a call-to-action, they should then be sent to a landing page. A landing page is where the offer in the call-to-action is fulfilled, and where the prospect submits information that your sales team can use to begin a conversation with them. When website visitors fill out forms on landing pages, they typically become leads.

      Forms- In order for visitors to become leads, they must fill out a form and submit their information. Optimize your form to make this step of the conversion process as easy as possible.

      Contacts- Keep track of the leads you’re converting in a centralized marketing database. Having all your data in one place helps you make sense out of every interaction you’ve had with your contacts — be it through email, a landing page, social media, or otherwise — and how to optimize your future interactions to more effectively attract, convert, close, and delight your buyer personas.

      Close
      You’re on the right track. You’ve attracted the right visitors and converted the right leads, but now you need to transform those leads into customers. How can you most effectively accomplish this feat? Certain marketing tools can be used at this stage to make sure you’re closing the right leads at the right times.

      Closing tools include:

      Lead Scoring- You’ve got contacts in your system, but how do you know which ones are ready to speak to your sales team? Using a numerical representation of the sales-readiness of a lead takes the guesswork out of the process.

      Email- What do you do if a visitor clicks on your call to action, fills out a landing page, or downloads your whitepaper, but still isn’t ready to become a customer? A series of emails focused on useful, relevant content can build trust with a prospect and help them become more ready to buy.

      Marketing Automation- This process involves creating email marketing and lead nurturing tailored to the needs and lifecycle stage of each lead. For example, if a visitor downloaded a whitepaper on a certain topic from you in the past, you might want to send that lead a series of related emails. But if they follow you on Twitter and visited certain pages on your website, you might want to change the messaging to reflect those different interests.

      Closed-loop Reporting- How do you know which marketing efforts are bringing in the best leads? Is your sales team effectively closing those best leads into customers? Integration with your Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system allows you to analyze just how well your marketing and sales teams are playing together.

      Delight
      The Inbound way is all about providing remarkable content to our users, whether they be visitors, leads, or existing customers. Just because someone has already written you a check doesn’t mean you can forget about them. Inbound marketers continue to engage with, delight, and (hopefully) upsell their current customer base into happy promoters of the companies and products they love.

      Tools used to delight customers include:

      Smart Calls-to-Action- These present different users with offers that change based on buyer persona and lifecycle stage.

      Social Media- Using various social platforms gives you the opportunity to provide real-time customer service.

      Email and Marketing Automation- Providing your existing customers with remarkable content can help them achieve their own goals, as well as introduce new products and features that might be of interest to them.

      (HubSpot)

    Meme
    Writing
    Coined by Richard Dawkins in 1976
    An idea, pattern of behavior, practice, or style that spreads quickly from person to person within a given cultural context (Alena Graedon’s The Word Exchange)
    Meta tag
    HTML, Websites
    Coding statement that describes the contents of a web page
    A wide variety of specific meta tags are possible:
    • Author
    • Copyright
    • Description *
    • Keywords **
    • Language
    • Title *

    * Essential in improving your page rank

    ** Spiders look for keywords in a meta tag as well as extremely similar words used within the page

    Mood
    Writing
    Underlying feeling or atmosphere produced by a story
    Mystery
    A book or series genre fiction in which someone solves a crime or series of crimes without knowing who the killer is — the whodunnit. Its purpose is to solve a puzzle and to create a feeling of resolution with the audience through more cerebral means and at a slower pace.
    Sub-genres within the mystery genre include the amateur sleuth (John Creasey’s The Toff, Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes, etc.); cozies are also amateur sleuths but with a woman (Agatha Christie’s Miss Marple, Diane Mott Davidson’s Goldy Bear Culinary Mysteries, etc.); historical mysteries take place in the past (Margaret Frazer’s Sister Frevisse, Ellis Peters’ Chronicles of Brother Cadfael, Candace Robb’s Owen Archer); police procedurals follow a police detective (John Creasey’s Inspector West, Åsa Larsson’s Rebecka Martinsson, Tana French’s Dublin Murder Squad, Ed McBain’s 87th Precinct, etc.); the private investigator, obviously, has a PI as its protagonist (Agatha Christie’s Hercule Poirot; Sara Paretsky’s V.I. Warshawski;

    In general, the PWA defines a “private eye” as any mystery protagonist who is a professional investigator, but not a police officer or government agent. The full definition is, and I quote, “a person paid for investigative work but not employed by a unit of government. Thus books and stories about private investigators (licensed and unlicensed), lawyers and reporters who do their own legwork, and other hired agents are eligible; works centering on law enforcement officers or amateur sleuths are not.”

    Amateur Sleuth
    A book or series genre which features a person with the skills and desire to investigate mysteries. It’s a close cousin to the cozy.
    Cozies
    A book or series genre includes a lighthearted tone and generally features an intelligent woman as the protagonist with particular skills, an occupation or particular hobby, and lives in a small town or village which makes it more likely that she knows many of the people who may be involved or know something. Frequently, her best friend, husband, or significant other is involved in law enforcement as a medical examiner, lawyer, policeman, detective, etc.
    The Cozy Mystery List website has a great post on “What Makes a Cozy Just That?“.
    Crime
    A book or series genre that fictionalizes crimes, their detection, criminals, and their motives.
    Detective
    A book or series genre in which a detective usually concentrates on a single crime.
    Historical Mystery
    A book or series genre that is set in a time period that the author sees as being in the past with the central plot solving a crime or murder.
    See Mystery for more of a definition.
    Police Procedural
    A book or series genre in which a detective has to deal with more than one crime or mystery in a single story and usually with the bad guy’s identity known ahead of time. A police procedural will usually feature police-related topics such as forensics, autopsies, the gathering of evidence, the use of search warrants, and interrogation.
    Private Investigator
    The Private Eye Writers define a private eye as any mystery protagonist who is a private citizen who is a paid professional investigator (licensed and unlicensed), but not a civic or state police officer, member of the military or a federal agency (Private Eye Writers and The Thrilling Detective Website).
    P.I.s can be:
    • Traditional private investigators
    • Lawyers and reporters who do their own legwork
    • Other hired agents
    • TV or newspaper reporter
    • Insurance investigator
    • Employee of an investigative service or agency (think Pinkertons)
    P.I.s can’t be:
    • Works centering on law enforcement officers or amateur sleuths
    • FBI or CIA agents

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    N

    Naming convention
    Computers, Organization, Websites
    A standard by which the reader can determine something from a small amount of information
    Some examples of conventions include:
    • The corner of 5th & Main tells you a location
    • 1-800- is probably part of a phone number
    • mm refers to millimeters
    Files for websites ALWAYS uses a small letter to begin a file name, e.g., aboutKathyDavie.html, navTop.gif, contact.html, portfolio.html, logo.jpg, etc.
    There are three types of naming conventions for web design use:
    • camelBack
    • under_score
    • hyphen-ated
    Neutral position
    Ergonomics
    Relaxed, balanced posture of the body which permits a neutral alignment
    Stress to joints and muscles is minimized
    Even better if you can incorporate Pilates training with its emphasis on core strength
    New Adult
    Technically a genre, but most readers see it as focused on a reading audience that is young but older than Young Adult
    As a book or series genre, its protagonists are in the 18-25 age bracket
    Novel
    Books, Writing
    A book that is 80,000 to 100,000 words
    DAW The average length of the novels we publish varies, but is almost never fewer than 80,000 words.
    Novella
    Books, Writing
    A short book that is considerably longer than a short story but shorter than a novel
    Must be able to stand on its own as a book
    The word count may range from 20,000 to 60,000 words; different organizations, publishers, and contests may use a different range.
    If published in its own individual binding, italicize its title

    O

    Object
    CSS, HTML, Websites
    As of HTML 4, <object> is intended to replace <embed> and <img> but not all browsers are supporting it yet
    Omnibus
    Books, Publishing
    A grouping of short stories in one book:
    • Same author
    • Reprinted works related in interest or theme
    Compare it against anthology and collection under Short Stories
    OpenType
    Typography
    Considered a fusion font format because it combines Postscript and TrueType
    See also TrueType or PostScript
    Optimization
    Computers, Graphics
    The primary purpose involves compressing an image to reduce it in size visually as well as to reduce its file size in order to speed up a web page opening
    It also makes it more likely the image will be small enough in size to send as an email attachment while retaining a certain level of quality

    P

    Pace, narrative
    Writing
    Pace plays an important role in the narrative. Through the correct use of pacing, the writer can keep the reader on the edge of his seat and then give the same reader a bit of a reprieve when the plot becomes tense. This element of writing determines whether the person reading the book continues to read or puts it down because of boredom.

    Define
    Narrative pace determines how quickly or how slowly the writer takes a reader through a story, explains Writer’s Digest. The story itself determines the pace of the story. It relies on the combination of mood and emotion as these elements play out in the dialogue, setting and action. For example, a story such as Dan Brown’s “The DaVinci Code” has a much faster pace than Elizabeth Gilbert’s “Eat, Pray, Love.” Additionally, the pace of the story varies; the opening pace may feel very different from that of the story’s climax.
    Upping the Pace
    Fast action and rapid sequencing put a little spring into the narrative’s step — as does the cliffhanger. Both of these narrative elements make the reader want to go on to the next page to see what happens to the story’s hero. Action sequences containing little dialogue and few thoughts from the characters best create this feeling. Using short transitions in between scenes works in tandem with the action sequences to get the story moving. Also related to these literary devices is the use of rapid sequencing. If big plot moments happen one right after the other, the pace of the short story or novel feels faster.
    Slowing It Down
    Narrative passages that contain a great deal of detail — slowly establishing scenes and containing longer sentences — feel slower than other parts of the story. Additionally, writing longer chapters or switching the narrative’s focus to another subplot conveys a passage of time. These elements bring the pace down, building suspense or allowing the reader to catch his breath between visceral action sequences.
    Striking a Balance
    The most interesting stories contain sequences that move at different speeds. These keep the reader engaged. In “The DaVinci Code,” the author accomplished this by juxtaposing chapters that featured mostly dialogue that imparted information about the relics the characters where seeking with fast-paced action sequences. Generally, the book moves very quickly, but chapters with a more leisurely pace helped keep the tension high and the story moving without allowing the reader to become bored (The Classroom).

    Page proofs
    Editing
    So-called because they are laid out as exactly as they will appear in the final printed book.
    Page rank
    Marketing
    Position a website occupies after a search using a search engine such as Google or Bing
    The higher your rank, the more likely your website is to appear on the first page of a list of searched websites
    Paint
    Graphics
    Image manipulation/editing software program available for free on a Windows-based computer
    Panster
    Writing
    Someone who dives in and writes by the seat of their paints. No planning ahead of time.
    Parallel World
    A book or series theme within science fiction, fiction, and fantasy, etc., that focuses on a world or universe that mirrors our own
    Paranormal
    As a book or series sub-genre that blends the supernatural with reality. Mostly combined with paranormal romance.
    Parent
    CSS, HTML, Websites
    Relates to selectors in CSS coding
    In CSS, it is possible to create classes, sub-categories of a selector such as ul.footer. When a class is created, the selector is referred to as the parent, in this case, ul. The class created is then referred to as the child, .footer.
    UL is a selector frequently used in a CSS stylesheet. Frequently enough that you’ll need classes/subcategories, or children for uls. Some examples include ul.menuTop, ul.table, etc.
    selector
    ul.menu { margin-left : 0.5em ;}
    parent . child { property : value ;}
    declar ation
    Passive Voice
    Writing
    The opposite of passive voice is active voice
    Define
    give examples
    PC
    Computers
    Personal computer
    Typically runs a Windows operating system (OS)
    .PDF
    Portable Document Format
    Used by Adobe Acrobat
    • Adobe Acrobat is used to create & save the text file or the form file as well as enable the user to create a form which anyone can fill out
    • Adobe Acrobat Reader permits anyone to open and read a PDF file but not to access it
    Originally developed for cross-platform use

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    Photo Gallery
    Computers, Graphics, Organization
    Image manipulation/editing and organizing software program available for free on a Windows-based computer
    Photoshop
    Computers, Graphics
    Image manipulation/editing professional software program available for both PC and Macintosh
    Manufactured by Adobe
    php
    Programming, Websites
    Stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
    A scripting language that is ideal for use in developing a Web site
    Can be embedded into HTML
    Must be used server-side
    Pixel
    Graphics
    (pix) picture (el) element
    Smallest single unit that goes into making up a digital image
    May use a square or a circle as its single unit
    Depending on usage, it can take from 1- to 8-pixels to make up 1 byte

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    Plot
    Writing
    The series of events that give a story its meaning and effect, due to the conflict experienced by the main character. The conflict may come from something external, like a dragon or an overbearing mother, or it may stem from an internal issue, such as jealousy, loss of identity, or overconfidence. As the character makes choices and tries to resolve the problem, the story’s action is shaped and plot is generated. In some stories, the author structures the entire plot chronologically, with the first event followed by the second, third, and so on, like beads on a string. However, many other stories are told with flashback techniques in which plot events from earlier times interrupt the story’s current events.
    The usual pattern of a plot is (Virtual Lit):
    1. Introduction of the character and the conflict facing him/her
    2. Issues or complications that arise as the character attempts to deal (or not) with the problems
    3. Tension and drama rises toward the climax of the conflict
    4. Climax: the most dramatic, tense moment of the story ___
    5. Resolution finds the conflict resolved and the drama drifts away into the end of the story
    .PNG
    Graphics
    Portable Network Graphics
    File format used for digital images
    Ideal for when you really, really have to have an invisible background on the Internet BUT still not widely supported
    Bitmap image
    Uses internal lossless data compression
    Created to replace the GIF format
    Use with gray scale, RGB, or palette-based 24-bit RGB colors
    Cannot be used with CMYK (print images)
    POD, see Print-on-Demand
    Publishing
    xx
    Point-of-View (POV)
    Writing
    The source and scope of the narrative voice, who is observing and relating events in the story
    The author’s choice of point-of-view will determined the story’s voice and what information can be given to the reader (Virtual Lit).
    • Narrative voice: The voice of the narrator telling the story
    • Point-of-view character: The character focused on most closely by the narrator
    Point-of-View Identified by Pros Cons
    First-person Usually identifiable by the use of the pronoun I with a character in the story doing the narration, i.e., it’s the narrator him- or herself who is telling the story

    S/he may be a major character and is often its protagonist

    May be a minor character, someone within the story but not centrally involved

    xx What can be shown is limited to the character’s observation and thoughts, and any skewed perceptions in the narrator will be passed on to the reader.
    I love to climb trees.
    Second-person Makes the reader part of the story by using you xx Not used very often because making the reader part of the story can be awkward
    You climb the trees.
    Third-person The narrator does not take part in the story xx xx
    She loves to climb trees.
    Third-person omniscient , the narrative voice can render information from anywhere, including the thoughts and feelings of any of the characters. This all-knowing perspective allows the narrator to roam freely in the story’s setting and even beyond. xx xx
    example
    Third-person limited,
    a.k.a., third-person sympathetic
    Relates what is in the minds of only a select few characters (often only one, the point-of-view character) xx xx
    example
    Third-person objective,
    a.k.a., third-person dramatic
    Narrator renders explicit, observable details and does not have access to the internal thoughts of characters or background information about the setting or situation. Any character’s thoughts can only be understood by their actions or dialog.

    Generally the way drama is developed.

    xx xx
    example
    Postscript
    Typography
    Page description language, which evolved from InterPress at Adobe designed to describe any printed ‘event’ on a pageFelici
    Installed on printers to enable fancier page layouts than the old typewriter-styled pages
    Not linked to a specific printer, computer, operating system, or softwe
    Uses a scalable, vector-based image
    See also TrueType or OpenType
    ppi
    Computers, Graphics
    Pixels per inch
    The greater number of pixels used per inch, the higher the resolution of the image
    Print-on-Demand
    Books, Publishing
    a.k.a., POD, on-demand book printing
    A book is not printed until a customer buys it
    Prologue
    Writing
    Material related and connected to the rest of the book, not something ancillary (Live Write Thrive)
    Introduce characters or the purpose of the main story by establishing a background that sets the scene, conflict, and/or purpose for the story and/or its characters that is to come.
    Clive Cussler’s NUMA Files and Dirk Pitt series have excellent examples of a prologue.
    .PSD
    Graphics
    Used with Adobe PhotoShop
    File format used for digital images
    Used for original images
    To use on the Internet, the file/image must be saved as a PNG, JPG, or GIF
    To print out, the file/image may be saved as a TIF, PNG, JPG, or GIF

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    Pseudo-class
    CSS, HTML, Websites
    Add special effects to a selector — a:link
    Useful for minor visual effects
    Publisher
    Books, Publishing
    There are three kinds of publishers:
    • Traditional
    • Independent
    • Self
    Traditional publishers are a.k.a., New York publishers,legacy publishing, corporate publishing, the Big 5
    Independent publishers are everyone not the Big 5 and includes Apple, Amazon, and Smashwords???? It is sometimes defined as self-publishing.
    Self-publishers are individual authors

    R

    .RAW
    Computers, Graphics
    Image data from a digital camera or scanner
    File format used for digital images
    Sometimes referred to as a digital negative
    Not directly usable as an image until processed through an imaging software program
    Standard file extension used when original photos first downloaded from a digital camera
    Used for original images by professionals

    Resolution
    Graphics
    Number of pixels used to create the image. The more pixels used, the greater the number of color values that are possible and the better the image
    It also means a very large file size

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    RGB
    Computers, Graphics
    Red-green-blue
    Additive color model
    Color process used for your digital and/or Internet-intended images
    RGB, palette-based 24-bit
    Computers, Graphics
    Highest color depth normally used
    Available on most modern monitors and software
    RGBA
    Computers, Graphics, Websites
    Lets you set the transparency of the color
    Ranges from 1 to 10 with 10 fully transparent and 1 is fully opaque

    For example:
    Hexadecimal: #1B452C is RGB: 27,69,44,5
    (the ,5 indicates the level of transparency)

    Ranges from 0 to 1 are translucent (0.9, 0.8,..0.2, 0.1, 0)

    27,69,44,0.5 indicates a translucency of 0.5

    Romance
    A book or series genre which places the primary focus on the relationship and the development of romantic love between two characters with a happily ever after.
    Can be attached to any variety of other genres from fantasy, horror, science fiction, and more.
    The sexual aspect of the romance varies depending upon the intention behind character growth, story and relationship development, and how important the sex is to the storyline itself. For more differentiation, see also romance, erotic romance, erotica, porn, and sexy romance.
    The sexual terminology used are generally subtle references to the characters’ body parts, although words may include cock and cunt.
    • Romance Sub-genres (Romance Writers of America)
      • Contemporary Romance, as a book or series, this sub-genre focuses primarily on the romantic relationship and is set from 1950 to the present.
      • Historical Romance, as a book or series, this is a sub-genre that is set in any historical time period from 1950 on back.
      • Inspirational Romance, as a book or series, this is a sub-genre that incorporates “religious or spiritual beliefs in anyone’s religion or spiritual belief system as a major part of the romantic relationship”, e.g., Christian romance.
      • Paranormal Romance, as a book sub-genre, the plot moves romantically between two characters with true love following at the end of the story and blends the supernatural with reality, using the future, a fantasy world, or paranormal elements as an important part of the plot.
        • As a series genre, it usually revolves around the same group of characters, but the primary focus is on a different primary character each time…think of J.R. Ward’s Black Dagger Brotherhood.
      • Romantic Suspense, as a book or series, this is a sub-genre “in which suspense, mystery, or thriller elements constitute an integral part of the plot.
      • Young Adult Romance, as a book or series, this is a sub-genre that is “geared toward young adult readers”.
    • Sexual Distinctions of the Romance Genre
      • Erotic Romance, as a book or series sub-genre which is a romance that develops between two participants with sex an important aspect of the story and essential to character growth and relationship development. Its removal would damage the storyline. It may include toys, bondage, or games, and it always ends in a happily ever after (Sorcha Grace; Sylvia Day).
        • The sexual terminology used will vary from subtle references to the characters’ body parts to more explicit and will include the primary “c” words: cock, cunt, and clitoris.
        • See also romance, erotica, porn, and sexy romance.
      • Erotica, as a book or series sub-genre explores the sexual journey of the participants (usually two or more) and how it affects them as individuals. It may or may not show the development of a romantic relationship. Love and/or lust may be an element in the story; may include toys, bondage, or games; usually ends with happy; but, not necessarily happily ever after (Sorcha Grace; Sylvia Day).
        • The primary difference between an erotic romance and erotica is the number of participants — there are always two, but erotica can expand beyond a paltry two, lol.
        • I consider D/s, bondage and discipline, etc., to be within the erotica category.
        • The sexual terminology used will include the primary “c” words: cock, cunt, and clitoris as well as more sexually explicit words.
        • See also romance, erotic romance, porn, and sexy romance.
      • Porn, as a book or series sub-genre written strictly to gratify the reader sexually. Plot, character development, and romance are NOT primary to these stories; the sex does nothing to move the story forward. They are designed to incite the reader to orgasm and nothing else (Sylvia Day).
      • Sexy Romance, as a book or series genre which is “about the development of a romantic relationship that just happen to have more explicit sex. The sex is not an inherent part of the story, character growth, or relationship development, and could easily be removed or “toned down” without damaging the storyline. A happily ever after is a REQUIREMENT as this is basically a standard romance with hotter sex (Sylvia Day).
        • The sexual terminology used will vary from subtle references to the characters’ body parts to more explicit and will include the primary “c” words: cock, cunt, and clitoris.
    Root folder
    Computers, Websites
    Folder set up on your hard drive to hold all the files and pages that make up your website
    Running feet
    Books, Book Layout
    Title, chapter, and/or author information sometimes found at the bottom of each page
    For more detail, see running head
    Running head
    Books, Book Layout
    Title, chapter, and/or author information usually found at the top of each page. Besides creating a finished look to book pages, they also:
    • Orient the reader within the book. Any material that takes up more than one page should have a running head. In books with long chapter titles, it’s common to shorten the title to fit on one line along with a page number.
    • Sometimes running heads reflect the content of specific pages by using subheads or other editorial text
    • Often omitted in novels unless specifically used as a design element or as a marketing tool

    S

    Sales copy, see Jacket copy
    Marketing
    SAN
    Books, Publishing
    Standard Address Number
    A unique seven-digit identifier used to signify a specific address of an organization that participates in repetitive transactions with other members of the industry (including “U.S. book and journal publishers, booksellers, book wholesalers, subscription agents, jobbers and distributors, printers, binders, compositors and other manufacturing suppliers to the publishing industry, college and university bookstores, libraries, library systems, elementary and secondary schools and school systems” Standard Address Number (SAN) for the Publishing Industry) in order to facilitate communications among them.
    Science Fiction
    A book or series genre that focuses on scientific, technological, social, and/or environmental changes, frequently including space or time travel and/or life on other planets
    Alternate Planes of Existence
    A.k.a., alternate dimensions
    A book or series sub-genre that exists along with our world, but can’t be seen or accessed without supernatural means. These are things like subspace in science-fiction games, astral planes, or any time you enter a world where things look all funky. A lot of times this is how cloaking technology is explained, a person is “out of phase” as as such can’t be seen by those in this dimension. It’s also quite a popular way to depict how demons or shadows can move around without being seen (Giant Bomb).
    Sandy Williams’ Shadow Reader series in which the heroine pops back and forth from one plane to another or Angela Knight’s erotic paranormal romance series, Mageverse with its Disney-gone-wild architecture (Giant Bomb).
    Alternate History
    A.k.a., alternate timeline
    A book or series sub-genre that is a reality in which historical events diverged from the main timeline through the actions of a time traveller or other temporal phenomena, what-if scenarios. These alterations can be prevented from having ever come to pass, although memories of them are usually retained.
    Taylor Anderson’s Destroyermen series in which a WWII destroyer is sent to an alternate timeline during a battle or That roman history i started XX
    Apocalyptic
    A.k.a., post-apocalyptic, is a book or series sub-genre about a world-changing, cataclysmic event: floods, an EMP burst, zombies, the super flu, earthquakes, solar flares, the moon falling out of alignment, etc. The event could have already happened, or is in the process of happening, but post-apocalyptic novels are about the survivors and how they deal with this new, deadly world. It could even have hints of dystopian in it, as new societies emerge from the remains of civilization. But a Post-apocalyptic novel is about the survivors, and everything they face after the world ends.
    An excellent example is S.M. Stirling’s Emberverse series.
    Dystopian
    A book or series sub-genre focuses on what society has done wrong that led to this awful world. Examples include Suzanne Collins’ Hunger Games series and George Orwell’s 1984.
    Parallel World/Universe
    A book or series sub-genre in which worlds that exist on top of our own, occupying the same space and in existence since the dawn of time. They may be similar, they may be completely different. Most stories depict the same characters in each universe but each has made a different choice which resulted in a different life.
    Robert Heinlein’s The Number of the Beast, Steven King’s The Dark Tower, Harry Turtledove’s Crosstime Traffic, and C.S. Lewis’ Chronicles of Narnia.
    Space Opera
    A book or series sub-genre was originally a pejorative term referring to simple and melodramatic science fiction. Today, it’s defined as “colorful, dramatic, large-scale science fiction adventure, competently and sometimes beautifully written, usually focused on a sympathetic, heroic central character and plot action, and usually set in the relatively distant future, and in space or on other worlds, characteristically optimistic in tone. It often deals with war, piracy, military virtues, and very large-scale action, large stakes.”
    Hartwell and Cramer 2008. introduction. pp. 10-18.

    David Hartwell & Kathryn Cramer (Ed)’s “The Ascent of Wonder: The Evolution of Hard SF”: Annotated table of contents & review

    The Ascent of Wonder: The Evolution of Hard SF

    Front Cover
    David G. Hartwell, Kathryn Cramer
    Tom Doherty Associates, Jun 15, 1994

    Large-scale sci-fi adventure that optimistically focuses on a sympathetic, heroic central character and plot action. Usually set in the relatively distant future in space or on other worlds

    Steampunk
    A book or series sub-genre of science fiction that typically features steam-powered machinery and/or gears. Inspired by industrialization, steampunk is generally a Victorian or Victorian-inspired setting in an alternate universe.
    Time Travel
    A book or series sub-genre in which the characters travel through time instead of space. It’s usually into the past, but Dr. Who tends to go every which way.
    Mark Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court has been a longtime favorite. L. Sprague de Camp’s Lest Darkness Fall, H.G. Wells’ Time Machine, Eoin Colfer’s W.A.R.P., Jack Finney’s Time, Julie Cross’ Tempest, and Connie Willis’ Oxford Time Travel series are just a few.
    Script
    Programming, Websites
    Programming language which operates inside of a website or page; think of it as a tiny program
    First created to take over tedious, repetitive computer tasks
    Uses tags in either the or tag of a webpage
    There are a lot of scripts possible:
    • JavaScript is very popular; less commonly known as ECMAScript – language
    • Perl – general purpose scripting language and third most popular
    • C, C++ – powerful, complex programming language
    • AppleScript
    • Macros
    • CGI
    • ASP
    • Ruby on Rails
    • Ajax – combination of XML and JavaScript
    • Visual Basic
    • Java – powerful, complex programming language developed by Sun Microsystems
    • .Net
    • PHP – second most popular
    • TCL
    • Rexx
    • Python
    • Coldfusion – language
    • CSS – language
    • HTML, XML, XHTML
    Also known as:
    • Applets (Applets have, technically, been replaced by <object> since HTML 4.0)
    Selector
    CSS, HTML, Websites
    There are two parts to CSS code: selectors and declarations
    The selector is usually the HTML element you want to style, such as paragraph <p>, lists <ul>/<ol>, tables <table>, headings <h1>, to name just a few.
    p { font-size : 1em ;}
    selector property : value ;}
    declar ation
    SEO
    Marketing, SEO
    Search Engine Optimization
    Process by which you perform a number of tasks on each webpage to make that page/your website more inviting to spiders so they are more likely to increase your page rank
    • Use of meta tags
    • A minimum of 2.5% of each page’s content shuld consist of keywords
    Server
    Computers, Websites
    Computer program which responds to users’ requests to see a particular website using http or https
    Stored on a computer which may also be referred to as a server
    Server-side
    Programming, Websites
    Code or script which can only function from the web host’s server (if you want to use php, be sure that your web host will allow it)
    See also client-side
    Setting
    Writing
    Where and when the story takes place
    It includes location, climate, décor, historical time, social context
    Can be used to set a mood
    Show it through narrative description, action, dialogue, and/or a character’s thoughts (Virtual Lit)
    SFTP
    Computers, Websites
    Simple File Transfer Protocol
    A process by which files are up- or downloaded to the Internet
    Less complex than FTP
    Short story
    Books, Writing
    The word count may range from 1,000 for an online literary magazine to 3,500 for print literary magazines on up to 30,000 words
    Title is enclosed by quotation marks
    Show versus Tell
    Writing
    xx
    Showrooming
    Marketing
    A tool for discoverability in which customers go to a physical retail store and then buy online
    When books are available as both digital and print, digital sales often decline if there is no visibility in stores. (Obviously this has no effect on self published authors who have no print presence).
    SISAC
    Books, Publishing
    Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI) standard
    A bar code based on the ANSI/NIOI Z39.56 that was developed for use in the library community to control check-in and issue receipt for those serials likely to be acquired through subscription by the library and information community. The ISSN is the first element in that code.
    .SIT
    .SITX
    Compression, Computers
    Stuff-It compressed file format used with the Mac
    A type of file compression software
    Social context
    Writing
    Significant cultural issues that affect a story’s setting
    Space Opera
    A book or series sub-genre XX
    Spam
    Computers
    Refers to unwanted junk emails, you know, Viagra ads, Ethiopian-Nigerian-? requests to transfer huge amounts of money
    Spider
    Computers, Internet, Marketing
    A.k.a, search engine crawler
    Automated program that constantly searches the Internet looking at meta tags, keywords, and, most importantly, page content to use for indexing purposes by search engines such as Google, Bing, Ask, Yahoo, etc.
    SSL
    Computers, Security
    Secure Sockets Layer
    Encryption program, which prevents a crook hacking into your session to steal your (or your customers’) personal or financial information
    Encryption levels range from 40-bit to 256-bit although most computers are only capable of processing 128-bit encryption
    If you want to sell products using your own credit card processing equipment or you collect personal information from clients, you should be using an SSL certificate. All financial institutions and any reputable e-store use SSL certificates.

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    Steampunk is a sub-genre of science fiction
    Story Arc
    Writing
    xx

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    Story continuity
    Writing
    The story continues to make sense and follow previously set author rules
    For example:
    • In one scene, a character adores chocolate, and in another scene, she hates it
    • A character is John in one scene, and Jon in another
    • Magic works like this, until it suddenly works a different way
    • The kingdom is ruled by an elderly woman who suddenly turns into a young teen
    • Helen’s hair is red in one scene and blonde in the next
    It’s reasonable that any of these things switch up, but there must be a reason for it.
    Storyboard
    Organization, Websites, Writing
    A text-and-graphics record of a particular web page
    Each storyboard contains:
    • Full text that will appear on that page
    • Link text and the hyperlink address for every link on that page
    • File name of every graphic used on that page
    • Record of the colors and font information
    Strict Doctype
    HTML, Websites
    Describes a type of document recognized by a browser
    A more proper term is standard
    By adhering to the strict standard, your website will age more gracefully into newer browser versions with fewer problems now…and then
    Style, Tone, and Language
    Writing
    Language conventions used to construct the story.

    The style in writing can be defined as the way a writer writes and it is the technique which an individual author uses in his writing. It varies from author to author and depends upon one’s syntax, word choice, and tone. It can also be described as a voice that readers listen to when they read the work of a writer.

    A fiction writer can manipulate diction, sentence structure, phrasing, dialogue, and other aspects of language to create style. Thus a story’s style could be described as richly detailed, flowing, and barely controlled, as in the case of Jamaica Kincaid’s “Girl,” or sparing and minimalist, as in the early work of Raymond Carver, to reflect the simple sentence structures and low range of vocabulary. Predominant styles change through time; therefore the time period in which fiction was written often influences its style. For example, Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown,” written in the nineteenth century, uses diction and sentence structure that might seem somewhat crisp and formal to contemporary readers: “With this excellent resolve for the future, Goodman Brown felt himself justified in making more haste on his present evil purpose.”

    The communicative effect created by the author’s style can be referred to as the story’s voice. To identify a story’s voice, ask yourself, “What kind of person does the narrator sound like?” A story’s voice may be serious and straightforward, rambunctiously comic, or dramatically tense. In “Girl,” the voice of the mother, as narrated to us in the daughter’s first-person point of view, is harsh and judgmental, exposing an urgent and weathered concern for the daughter’s development as she becomes a woman.

    A story’s style and voice contribute to its tone. Tone refers to the attitude that the story creates toward its subject matter. For example, a story may convey an earnest and sincere tone toward its characters and events, signaling to the reader that the material is to be taken in a serious, dramatic way. On the other hand, an attitude of humor or sarcasm may be created through subtle language and content manipulation. In the last line of Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour,” for example, an ironic spin emerges when we learn that “the doctors said she died of heart disease, of joy that kills.”

    Types of Style

    There are four basic literary styles used in writing. These styles distinguish the work of different authors from one another. Here are four styles of writing:

    Expository or Argumentative style

    Expository writing style is a subject-oriented style. The focus of the writer in this type of writing style is to tell the readers about a specific subject or topic and in the end the author leaves out his own opinion about that topic.

    Descriptive style

    In descriptive writing style, the author focuses on describing an event, a character or a place in detail. Sometimes, descriptive writing style is poetic in nature in, where the author specifies an event, an object or a thing rather than merely giving information about an event that has happened. Usually the description incorporates sensory details.

    Persuasive style

    Persuasive style of writing is a category of writing in which the writer tries to give reasons and justification to make the readers believe his point of view . The persuasive style aims to persuade and convince the readers.

    Narrative style

    Narrative writing style is a type of writing where the writer narrates a story to. It includes short stories, novels, novellas, biographies and poetry.

    Style sheet
    Organization, Websites, Writing
    Sets out the standards of writing and design for your story
    A set of guidelines that remind authors and editors of spelling preferences for words, names, abbreviations, capitalizations; of formatting issues; grammar choices; punctuation questions; and, more:
    • Which dictionary is referenced
    • How dates and numbers should appear (10 Dec 2013 or December 10, 2013?)
    • Spelling, including British/American differences and how names and places should be spelled throughout (Jon or John?)
    • How specific words should be hyphenated
    • How to handle possessives (Douglas’s or Douglas’?)
    • How references and citations should appear
    • Formatting for headings, tables, figure captions, tables, lists, etc.
    • Dialect
    • Character information
    Several organizations put out style guides stating the standards for a particular field or type of writing, which you can use as a reference:
    • The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is popular for nonjournalism writers and editors
    • Words Into Type (WIT) by Marjorie E. Skillin for editors
    • Associated Press Stylebook (AP) is used by newspapers
    • You may remember The Elements of Style (Strunk & White) from high school
    • Garner’s Modern American Usage by Bryan A. Garner
    • The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (MLA) is frequently used along with the APA’s Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association in higher education
    • U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual
    • Each profession has a style guide specific to it including doctors, engineers, software programmers, business, political science, etc.
    Download a sample style sheet
    Suspense
    A book or series genre which features danger, and you may know who the killer is from the start. The pace is sometimes slower, and it’s not necessarily action-oriented.
    Symbolism
    Writing
    An image is a sensory impression used to create meaning in a story. For example, near the beginning of Young Goodman Brown, we see Faith, Brown’s wife, “thrust her own pretty head into the street, letting the wind play with the pink ribbons of her cap.” While visual imagery such as this is typically the most prominent in a story, good fiction also includes imagery based on the other senses: sound, smell, touch, and taste.
    If an image in a story is used repeatedly and begins to carry multiple layers of meaning, it may be significant enough to call a symbol. Symbols are often objects, like a toy windmill or a rose, or they may be parts of a landscape, like a river — think of the sled in Orson Welles’ Citizen Kane. While a normal image is generally used once, to complete a scene or passage, a symbol is often referred to repeatedly and carries meanings essential to the story. Some symbols are universal, like water for cleansing, but others are more culturally based. In some African societies, for example, a black cat is seen as good luck. Fiction writers use preexisting cultural associations as well as meanings drawn from the context of the story to create multiple levels of meaning. Faith’s pink ribbons in Young Goodman Brown carry cultural connotations of innocence and purity, but the fact that the wind plays with the ribbons in one key image also brings to mind temptation, alluring chaos, the struggle with natural forces. Red is also a significant color in the story’s final temptation scene, with its basin of “water, reddened by the lurid light? Or was it blood?” Faith’s pink ribbons carry, of course, a tinge of red (Virtual Lit).
    Involves a range of meanings and interpretations and is not limited to objects or images. They can be events or actions.
    Foster includes A Passage to India by E.M. Forster and its “possible assault in the Marabar Caves” with all its possibilities. What do caves mean in Forster’s culture?
    Obvious symbols are a white flag even though it doesn’t have a single meaning. It could be I surrender or I come in peace.
    See also allegory or image
    Syntax
    Writing
    The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.

    T

    Tagline
    Marketing
    A.k.a., tagline, strapline, slogan
    Key phrase that identifies your business by capturing the essence of three elements:
    • Your mission
    • Your promise
    • Your brand
    Telegraphic Speech
    Hulk-style speech — not necessarily including referring to oneself by name — is typically referred to by linguists as , because people used to do something similar when sending telegrams, since they paid by the word: “Arrived Charleston Sunday morning leave for Macon Sunday night important I have full conference with you early Sunday.” They were often transcribed with all capital letters just because Morse code makes no distinction. But real telegrams weren’t exactly like Hulkspeak or “telegraphic language” — they only dropped word

    Hulkspeak, in short, isn’t quite like what a fresh-language learner or a person with limited English skills would speak. Actually, it’s what you get when someone who is fluent in grammatical English decides to keep everything in English but leave off the fancy, civilizing stuff — pronouns, conjugations that tell you tidily who is doing what, articles and other particles that refer to what is and isn’t already known. It’s like the “dumb jock” stereotype on steroids, but somehow sympathetic: a fantasy of ripping off the clothing of civilization and grammatical niceties and letting loose. Turn off the brains — just enough — and turn on the brawn.

    (A linguist’s guide to HULK SMASH” by James Harbeck in The Week)

    Text separator
    Books, Book Layout
    A graphic object which separates text. It may be asterisks, a rule, a graphic image, but it separates sections of text which make a leap from one scene or thought or character to another
    Theme
    Writing
    The meaning or concept we are left with after reading a piece of fiction.
    It answers the question, “What did you learn from this?”
    May be a prominent element and somewhat unmistakable. It would be difficult to read Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour” without understanding that the institution of nineteenth-century marriage robbed Mrs. Mallard of her freedom and identity. In some pieces of fiction, however, the theme is more elusive. What thought do we come away with after reading Jamaica Kincaid’s “Girl”? That mothers can try too hard? That oppression leads to oppression? That a parent’s repeated dire predictions have a way of becoming truth?

    Too much focus on pinning down a story’s theme can obscure the accompanying emotional context or the story’s intentional ambiguity (especially for contemporary fiction). In fact, the function of some contemporary short stories, such as Donald Barthelme’s “In the Tolstoy Museum,” is in part to make us confront the limitations of traditional processes of establishing meaning and coherence. In most cases, though, theme is still an important element of story construction (even in its absence), providing the basis for many valuable discussions.

    Thriller
    A book or series genre fiction that begins with a catastrophe and the reader and/or hero knows who the villain is early on with the hero’s objective to stop the bad guy through action. The thrill is in wondering if our hero(ine) is successful!
    Sub-genres within the thriller genre include legal thrillers (John Grisham, Scott Turow’s Kindle County) medical thrillers (xx), spy thrillers (XX), financial/corporate thrillers (Joseph Finder’s Nick Heller), and many others.
    .TIF
    .TIFF
    Graphics
    Tagged Image File Format
    File format used for digital images that will be printed
    Originally designed so images could be passed around to work with different applications
    All popular image editing / e-publishing programs use this format
    Internally compressed bitmap
    Saves uncompressed using lossless compression
    Tends to save as large files; don’t make it smaller
    Best for printing onto paper

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    Tile
    Graphics, Websites
    Create a background using the same image multiple times
    Think of it as a bathroom wall that’s been tiled with 12" x 12″" tiles
    Trade book
    Books, Writing
    A book published for distribution to the general public through booksellers (American Heritage Dictionary).
    Translucent
    Graphics
    Details are fuzzy
    Examples include foggy mirrors, privacy glass
    Used as the fourth set of digits, 0 to 1, in RGBA to affect the color
    Transparency
    Graphics
    Also known as a slide
    Transparent
    Graphics
    The opposite of opaque/solid
    Details are clear
    The more easily one can see through a color, the more transparent the color
    Used as the fourth set of digits, 1 to 10, in RGBA to affect the color
    Trope
    Writing
    A common or overused theme or device
    Cliché
    Examples:
    Horror Abandoned buildings as per the Friday the 13th movies
    Going down into basements as in Home Alone
    The Scary Movies with their parodies of horror films
    Romance Older stories “required” that the heroine is raped by the “hero” so she can escape the guilt of wanting sex

    The arranged marriage that either forces the hero and heroine to work together or causes one of them to run

    The girl is always a virgin

    The man is tamed by the love of a good woman

    Paranormal / Urban Fantasy The fated mate in which the hero and heroine must bond or one or both will die or live forever without ever knowing love and/or sex.There’s the insta-love trope which appears in romances as well in which the hero and heroine see the other and are instantly in love.

    The sexual side in which the man always knows how to bring the woman to orgasm — and satisfies her first.

    There’s the trope in which he’s a were and she’s a human with the ending changing her to suit him…or vice versa. Or s/he receives immortality as a reward or gift.

    Science Fiction Robots

    How easy space travel is to accomplish and the distances that are achieved

    Existence of ancient races

    Time machines

    Superpowers and transformations like the Fantastic Four and The Fly

    Alien invasions à la H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds

    Immortality as epitomized by The Highlander, Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray, and The League of Extraordinary Gentleman

    Stupid Don’t tell anyone important information in order to heighten the tension, drama, what have you

    Expecting a character to know how to do something because it’s part of their bloodline, race, etc.

    The heroine who can’t stay put

    I can’t possibly take the time to eat, because, gasp, whatever would we do for drama? (October Daye and Anita Blake)

    TrueType
    Typography
    Created through a collaboration by Apple and Microsoft in response to Adobe requiring font vendors to buy their hinting system to create fonts Felici
    See also OpenType or PostScript
    Typemark
    Note which manuscript elements need to be formatted differently from normal text:
    • Note the level, or weight, of each heading
    • Differentiate bulleted lists from numbered lists
    • Tables
    • Chapter numbers
    • References
    • Credit lines
    • Figure captions
    • Any element which must be formatted differently
    Performed by a copyeditor
    Typeset Copy
    Books, Publishing
    A typesetter’s proof, i.e., the manuscript laid out by the printer or publisher preparatory to being released
    Proofreaders may be asked to comparison proofread a typeset copy against the last edited version of the manuscript

    U

    Upload
    Computers, Websites
    Transfer of files to a web host (or web server)
    Enables users to access web pages
    See also Download

    magic or the supernatural in an imaginary world is the focus

    Urban Fantasy
    For more information, see its complete entry under Fantasy
    URI
    Computers, Internet
    Uniform Resource Identifier
    See URL.
    In 1998, the Network Working Group merged two earlier Resource for Comment (RFC) documents into the URI. The purpose of this merging is to create “a single, generic syntax for all URI making it easier to program browsers to see websites.
    URL
    Computers, Internet, Websites
    Uniform Resource Locator
    Originally, web addresses were a string of numbers (IP addresses) which had to be typed in. The string proved too difficult for people to accurately and consistently enter so the concept of using actual words was introduced
    An URL, does two things:
    • Identify a website
    • Provide the address so you can locate the website
    A relative URL ignores the domain name and begins /folder/fileName.xxx
    There are two reasons why a relative URL is used:
    • Reduces typing errors if you don’t have to type out the entire domain name
    • Saves space
    There are several reasons why this is a bad idea:
    • Increases the chances of a bad link so people can’t get to a different part of your website
    • It's a good habit to write the full domain name out in case people print your page out as it acts like a tiny bit of marketing for that person to find you again
    An absolute URL includes the entire address, http://www.yourwebsitename.com/folder/filename.xxx
    There are two reasons why an absolute URL is used:
    • Enables more people to access all the pages of your website by decreasing the chances of a bad, or broken, link
    • it's a good habit to write the full domain name out in case people print your page out as it acts like a tiny bit of marketing for that person to find you again
    There are several reasons why this is a bad idea:
    • Increases typing errors when you type out the entire domain name
    • Takes up space

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    User agent
    Computers, Internet
    A.k.a., UA
    Application that processes a web page, such as a browser, some assistive technology, or a search engine Olsson
    Sometimes used to refer to both ends of a communications session, in norm-terms, when my computer talks to your computer or another server
    On the Internet, UAs are web browsers (Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, etc.), search engine crawlers (spiders), bots, mobile phones, screen readers, braille browsers, etc.
    UAs usually identify themselves by their application type, operating system, software vendor, or software revision by submitting a characteristic identification string to its operating peer. In the HTTP and SIP protocols, this is transmitted in [the] header field, User Agent (User agent).
    UTF-8
    HTML, Websites
    A character-encoding protocol which tells the Internet and mail programs how to interpret the letters, numbers, and symbols used on a website or in an email message
    Backwards-compatible with ASCII
    UTM Code
    Computer, Marketing
    Little snippets of text added to the end of your URL to help you track the success of your content on the web. An example of UTM codes is highlighted in the URL below in orange:

    http://blog.hubspot.com/9-reasons-you-cant-resist-list?utm_campaign=blogpost &utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook

    A.k.a., UTM parameters
    Used in marketing
    Can group what your tracking by including:
    • Campaign: Groups all of the content from one campaign in your analytics.
      • Ex: utm_campaign=20percentpromocode
    • Source: Which website is sending you traffic.
      • Ex: utm_source=Facebook
    • Medium: The type of marketing medium that the link is featured in.
      • Ex: utm_medium=socialmedia
    • Content: Used to track the different types of content that point to the same URL from the same campaign, source, and medium codes. Often used in PPC or with two identical links on the same page.
      • Ex: utm_content=sidebarlink or utm_content=headerlink
    • Term: Used to identify the keywords you’ve paid for in a PPC ad.
      • Ex: utm_term=marketing+software

    (Ginny Soskey)

    V

    Validate
    CSS, HTML, Websites
    Checking the HTML and/or CSS code for errors
    Errors in the code create problems for the layout and the viewer
    The W3C is one of many services on the Internet providing validation for CSS and HTML
    Vector graphics
    Graphics
    Also known as object-oriented graphics
    Used by draw programs, CADD systems, animation software such as:
    • Adobe Illustrator, Flash, Fireworks, Acrobat
    Uses math to represent the images
    When resized or restretched, the image retains its resolution
    Ideal to use for text
    Looks better on monitors and printers
    Can be imported into Photoshop which will convert it into a bitmap
    Viewport
    Computers
    Browser window, computer monitor, cellphone screen

    W

    WebDAV
    Websites, Writing
    Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning
    Allows reading AND writing to a Web page

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    Web editor
    Websites, Writing
    Software program that eases the coding of web pages
    Popular programs include BBEdit and Adobe’s Dreamweaver and Homesite
    Web host
    Websites
    Also referred to as a web server
    A host is a company which has a lot of space in a particular type of computer hard drive that you rent by the month (or year)
    How much rent you pay depends upon how much space you need to hold the pages of your website, how many users access your site monthly, if you need CGI or php capability, if you want email addresses which relate to your website, etc.
    Whitespace
    Typography
    A.k.a., white space, empty space, negative space, breathing room
    Not necessarily white space
    Refers to the blank areas of the page
    Used to separate or unite elements on a page
    WWW
    Computers, Internet, Websites
    World Wide Web, the Web for short
    Indicates the primary host name for the location of your web site
    Today’s Web and its http:// standard was created by Tim Berners-Lee at the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1989. The World Wide Web was released in 1992.

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    WYSIWYG
    Computers
    What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get
    Creating content that looks the same as what others will see
    In the beginning, there were 1’s and 0’s, binary programming…today, you can draw a box and fill it with text or pictures

    X

    x-coordinate
    CSS, HTML, Websites
    Horizontal line
    From left to right
    Used in positioning graphics

    Y

    y-coordinate
    CSS, HTML, Websites
    Vertical line
    From top to bottom
    Used in positioning graphics
    Young Adult
    An age range to which an author writes.
    In this case, adolescents ranging from 12 to 18 years of age with the subject matter and storyline consistent within that age and experience using a protagonist within the same age range.

    Z

    .ZIP
    Compression, Computers
    WinZip compressed file format
    Used with Windows
    A type of file compression software
    To upload a plugin for WordPress, you must compress the file first.

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